The language contact phoneme inventories

發布時間:2020-06-02 23:06

下面ESSAYLW教員組為大家整理一篇優秀的代寫范文- The language contact & phoneme inventories,供大家參考學習。這篇文章講述的是語言接觸在語言的復雜性和多樣性方面起著重要的作用,與周圍語言的長期接觸導致借用詞來完成語段。因此,音位目錄迅速增加。此外,簡化可能會導致音位對比的損失:目錄越小,學習就越容易,洋涇浜語往往有小音位目錄。

The language contact & phoneme inventories

Language contact plays a great role in the complexity of languages as well as its diversity.The long-term contacts with neighboring languages results in borrowing words to complete the segments. As a result, phoneme inventories are rapidly increasing.Moreover, simplification may lead to loss of phonological contrasts: the smaller the inventory, the easier it is to learn and  pidgin languages tend to have small phoneme inventories.So, long-term contact involving child bilingualism may produce large inventories through borrowing, and adult language contact may produce smaller inventories through imperfect learning, pidginization, and simplification.Low degrees of language contact may lead to languages with small inventories, because the memory load difficulties caused by confusability and word length will not be relevant, since post-critical threshold learning is not involved.

Child v.s Adult speakers

<标题>  On the one hand, long-term language contact involving child-language acquisition, high degrees of language contact may lead to larger phoneme inventories due to  borrowing from neighboring languages.Situations involving adult language contact, on the other hand, are likely to support medium-sized phoneme inventories, i.e., inventories which are not so large as to be difficult for adolescents and adults to remember and acquire, but not so small as to cause confusability of constituents and high word length.

Small communities to keep large inventories?

Because the ability of small communities is helpful for small communities to keep continued adherence to norms from one generation to another due to their stable structure of language systems. We should distinguish between isolated communities which do, however, have neighbors, such as the San and the Yele, and isolated communities which do not, such as the Hawai’ians. Small communities which have neighbors, but which wish to remain as isolated as possible, may elaborate systems in order to make them more opaque to these neighbors. Migrations carried settlers to ever more remote parts of the Pacific, was accompanied by ever smaller phoneme inventories.Therefore, the ability of small communities,stable structure and migrations make contributions to keep large inventories of small communities and borrow many words into their phoneme inventory.

large communities & small inventories?

<标题> Because  it is difficult for adolescents and adults to remember and acquire. As noted above, tthe smaller the inventory, the easier it is to learn.The memory load difficulties caused by confusability and word length will not be relevant, since post-critical threshold learning is not involved. In addition, the large communities have a stable structure and hope to keep from borrowing from others . As a result. large communities would keep small inventories. 

Other factor

<标题> Besides language contacts, “ the size of phoneme inventory also depends on the population size. There is a robust connection between them”(Hay& Bauer, 2007,p.707). The more people speak in one kind of languages, the bigger its phoneme inventory is likely. For example, China with the population of about 1.4 billion puts Mandarin as its authorized language. But there are many dialects in China due to its vast area.So there is a positive correlation between the size of phoneme inventory. The small population one country has, the small phoneme inventory it creates.

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