下面為大家整理一篇優秀的essay代寫范文- Courtyard culture in China and Japan，供大家參考學習，這篇論文討論了中日的庭院文化。中國古典園林的構建基于模擬自然山水，以人工手段模仿自然，體現出人文情懷下的意境美。園林中“景”的要點是山水、植物以及建筑等要素的有機結合。典型的日本枯山水庭園主要構成元素便是巖石、耙制沙礫和自發生長與隱蔽處的一塊苔地。一沙一石就能形成獨特的精神世界，枯與寂，修心與內省。中日園林造景文化均是基于自然又超出自然，將自然與人文相結合，通過景物展現，以抒發自身情懷并感悟自然意境，一山一石一草一木皆有妙意，其意無窮需得親身體會。
Garden is an art of dealing with space and constructing space. The beauty of gardens, as picturesque as a poem, is probably the most common compliment to Chinese gardens. Because of its high artistic achievement and unique style, Chinese classical gardens are originally from nature and higher than nature. The organic integration of architectural beauty and natural beauty has both poetic and painting interests and profound and elegant artistic conception. This is famous in the world, the world's three major garden system.
According to the records in relevant books, the classical gardens in China started from the shang and zhou dynasties. The gardens in this period were mainly noble and royal gardens, with orchargs, terraces and gardens as the specific forms. Such as the western han dynasty on the forest. During the wei, jin and southern and northern dynasties, there were frequent wars and conflicts, and the change of land and land was unstable. People of insight hated the official environment, so they chose to build gardens and live in seclusion. The tang dynasty is a good period for the all-round development of economy, politics and culture. At this time, Chinese classical gardens also ushered in the heyday of development. Whether royal, private, temple gardens have reached the state of full bloom. Private gardens also developed rapidly because of the participation of scholars.
It is a characteristic of Chinese classical gardens to "learn from nature and be superior to nature". Through the habitat, painting, artistic conception, the unity of the three outline a fascinating place. Driven by Chinese garden culture, other countries have also begun to have fascinating views on garden culture. In the case of Japan, its original origin was actually due to sacrifice and etiquette. There are tombstones surrounded by ringed stones for the worship of gods, designed to protect the central paddy fields by ring-wall, and there are tombstones built by nobles for the worship of their relatives, all of which record the development process of Japanese courtyards.
With the development of The Times, the dry landscape gradually combines with the tea ceremony, highlighting the beauty of silence, the beauty of nature and the beauty of freedom from vulgarity. At present, the peak of the dry landscape garden is the daxian courtyard of dade temple and the stone courtyard of the abbot of longan temple in Beijing city, which perfectly shows the artistic expression of the combination of stone and sand.
The origin of gardens is actually a kind of human yearning and pursuit of fairyland. Its development comes from the understanding and exploration of beauty, it can be said that the garden is the human use of natural landscape to create visual appreciation. With different cultures, the ideological connotation and cultural accomplishment carried by gardens are also different. It is valuable to think about cultural differences to "see the outside and think about the inside".
The construction of Chinese classical gardens is based on simulating natural landscape and imitating nature by artificial means, reflecting the beauty of artistic conception under humanistic feelings. The key point of "landscape" in the garden is the organic combination of landscape, plants and architecture.
Garden architecture, as a kind of cultural landscape, has the characteristics of strewn at random, twists and turns, expanding the garden space. Under the influence of Confucianism and Taoism, the layout of the gardens is characterized by symmetrical structural beauty and vigorous natural beauty.
Chinese classical garden is the model of "landscape garden". There are three reasons: one is the rock born in nature, stacked stone for the mountain, adjacent to the water stone, the meaning of nature; The second is the cultural character of the stone, by which to open the mind and purify the soul; The third is the philosophical implication of mountains and rivers. Under the guidance of the philosophy of Confucianism and Taoism, "unity of nature and man" and "Taoism and nature", the application of mountains and stones is more significant.
The main elements of a typical Japanese dry landscape garden are rock, gravel and a moss-covered area of spontaneous growth and concealing. A sand and a stone can form a unique spiritual world: dry and lonely, mind and introspection.
With white sand floor, can rake in a straight line running water grains, wave line lines, water ripple, semicircle superposition, the sea waves in the fast-flowing swim spiral lines and so on and the water lines have adornment effect, show the sea, lake basin, river and water flow, with the view point of view, if present soft Bridges, hao if different pictures of the ocean, mapping the inner world of different people different time.
Both Chinese and Japanese landscape cultures are based on and beyond nature, combining nature with humanity, expressing their own feelings and feeling of natural artistic conception through scenery display. Mountains, rocks, plants and trees all have wonderful meanings, which need to be experienced personally.
Chinese classical gardens contain rich spiritual connotation and people's pursuit of artistic conception and art regardless of the size of space. The biggest characteristic of Chinese gardening art is that it is based on nature and higher than nature. In a fixed space, people combine landscape, plants and architecture into an organic whole by means of various gardening methods. Taking nature as the blueprint, the garden is integrated, which also reflects the theory of "the unity of man and nature" in the traditional Chinese culture and Taoism. The garden is regarded as an artistic work to express feelings, thus combining landscape with feelings and expressing aspirations through objects. In history, many scholars and hermits built gardens to reflect their pursuit of quiet, natural, simple and indifferent life. Garden pays more attention to the beauty of artistic conception, through the limited space in the garden, the limited concrete to realize the infinite "way", realize the philosophy of life. Walking in the garden, people are given the space to daydream and think, and achieve the transformation from the physical environment to the state of mind by the transformation from the scene to the image.
The Japanese dry landscape garden is deeply influenced by the ancient Chinese zen thought, and developed in combination with the local special geographical environment and human history. Japanese dry landscape to white sand as water, has been stone for mountain landscape, this kind of minimalism reflects the purpose of Japanese dry landscape garden. Zen Buddhism in Japan focuses more on the essence and heart of things, and abandons all the gorgeous decorations in order to be purer in expression. The dry landscape USES the static concrete such as white gravel, stone and non-flowering trees to create the eternal image, which gives people a direct shock to the soul, allowing people to sit and watch, and dialogue with themselves. Unlike the Chinese, who are optimistic and open-minded, the Japanese are more ascetic, self-disciplined, and self-disciplined, so as to achieve self-cultivation and to comprehend life.
Different from the Chinese classical garden culture, which is close to nature and blended with nature, the Japanese dry landscape culture can only be viewed from a distance and not obscenely. Although it can only be viewed in silence, zen can be realized from this small piece of land.
Although the Japanese courtyard culture is influenced by the Chinese courtyard culture, the special geographical environment and cultural characteristics of Japan have also deeply influenced and developed the Japanese courtyard culture. The courtyard culture in China and Japan has its own characteristics and reflects the different national characters and thoughts. Chinese courtyard culture pays more attention to the harmony and unity between man and nature, while Japanese courtyard culture pays more attention to the practice of zen to realize zen.