The influence factor of industrial structure

發布時間:2020-06-03 11:09

下面為大家整理一篇優秀的essay代寫范文- The influence factor of industrial structure,供大家參考學習,這篇論文討論了產業結構的影響因素。一切決定和影響經濟增長的因素都會不同程度上對產業結構的變動產生直接的或間接地影響。技術革命、技術創新和技術擴散都對產業結構的升級產生影響,特別是技術革命,往往導致一些新的產業部門的誕生。在現實經濟生活中,產業結構的變動或某個地區的興衰都會迫使勞動力流動,引起摩擦性失業。

Technological revolution, technological innovation and technological diffusion all affect the upgrading of industrial structure, especially technological revolution, which often leads to the birth of some new industrial sectors. According to the general classification, human society has experienced four technological revolutions. The first technological revolution was marked by the invention of machines and textiles and the widespread use of steam engines. The machine industry replaced the factory handicraft industry based on manual labor and promoted the transformation of human society from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The rise of the textile industry, the leap forward in transportation, and the rise of the steel and machinery industries were all the fruits of the first technological revolution. In agriculture, people began to use the steam pump to irrigate farmland in large quantities, and use it to push the stone mill to process agricultural products, and the mechanization of agricultural production began to take off. The energy structure of human beings changed from wood to coal, and the industrial power changed from human power, water power and wind power to steam power. The second technological revolution, which began in the 1870s, was marked by the widespread use of electricity, the invention of generators and motors, and another leap in productivity. Automobile industry and aviation industry are established on the basis of internal combustion engine technology. The rise of the power industry, "weak electricity" industry. During the second technological revolution, industrial production was further centralized, monopoly enterprises emerged continuously, and "Taylor system" appeared in the internal management of enterprises, forming production lines and so on. The third technological revolution began in the 1950s, marked by the use of atomic energy, the birth and development of electronic computers, polymer synthesis technology and space technology. The emergence of atomic energy technology has led to the rise of a large number of production and application of atomic energy industry, including atomic energy-related machinery, materials, fuel and other industries. Polymer synthesis technology led to the development of plastics, rubber, fiber, synthetic materials industry. The emergence of electronic computer technology, the enormous impact is known to all. Human beings have a computer as a representative of the new means of production, greatly save human physical strength, and to a certain extent replaced the brain, so that people can use "computer" instead of a variety of complex mental work, this is a revolutionary change, greatly improve labor productivity. With the development of computer technology and the wide use of computer, the information system of social management and enterprise management can be generally established, and the information industry has gradually become the leading industry. Obviously, this technological revolution has brought about further adjustment and upgrading of industrial structure. The fourth technological revolution started in the 1980s and is often referred to as the new technological revolution. It is mainly marked by bioengineering technology, information network technology, software technology and new material technology. This new technological revolution is still in progress, and its specific content is still different at present. In the past 20 years, the emergence of new and high technology and the rise of new and high technology industry have had a significant impact on the upgrading of industrial structure, and also provided a technological basis for the rise and development of knowledge economy. Especially, information network technology and biotechnology and gene technology based on life science will play an increasingly important role in the development of various industries.

If science and technology want to become the main force to promote economic growth, they must transform from the knowledge form to the material form, from the potential productivity to the real productivity, and this transformation is realized in the link of technological innovation. Technological innovation is an uninterrupted process. From a dynamic perspective, the process of technological innovation is composed of scientific research to form new inventions, new product development, trial production and production, trial production marketing and other links. Technological innovation is the driving force for industrial growth and development. There are numerous examples of technological innovation promoting industrial development. As far as agriculture is concerned, modern agriculture is far less technologically advanced than traditional agriculture. While modern agricultural science and technology is forming its own complete system, many other categories of natural science and social science, technical science and economic science are continuously penetrating and integrating into agricultural science, thus forming many new intersection points, broadening the field of agricultural production and promoting the sustainable development of modern agriculture.

Natural resources are the external natural conditions that the social production process depends on. A country's endowment of natural resources has an important impact on its industrial structure and economic development. The economy was first developed in the cold belt and the coastal areas. Nowadays, many developed countries enjoy superior natural resources, which proves the importance of natural resources. The quality of natural conditions directly affects the development of agriculture in a country. However, the condition of underground resources directly affects the structure of extractive industry and fuel power industry. The industrial structure of Opec member countries and that of Australia, New Zealand and South Korea did benefit from their natural resource endowment in the process of industrial structure transformation. However, natural resource endowment is by no means a decisive factor. Countries with good natural resource conditions may have very different economic development. Therefore, the ownership of natural resources is often not regarded by some economists as the path of industrialization development and structural transformation of a country, such as Japan, Singapore and Hong Kong special administrative region of China. In particular, Japan, a country with few natural resources, has been among the world's leading economic powers for 30 years. At the beginning of the 20th century, Argentina was a high-income country with a much higher standard of living than Italy, especially after the World War II. Although Argentina has some of the most productive land in the world and a lot of minerals, the crisis in recent years has led to a recession in Argentina, which shows that having a lot of natural resources does not guarantee sustainable development. The situation of natural resources has a relative impact on the industrial structure. With the progress of science and technology, many previously unextractable resources will be developed, and comprehensive utilization and substitution of natural raw materials will be carried out economically. International trade can make up for the shortage of domestic resources and relieve the restriction of natural resources on the industrial structure of a country or a region.

Population size has two aspects of quantity and quality. Population quantity refers to the total population at a certain point in a country, while quality refers to the different composition in the established total population. Under the conditions of natural resources, capital quantity and available technology, the speed of economic growth or the increase of national output in a certain period depends on the quantity of available labor. The increase of labor force comes from the natural growth of population, the increase of labor participation rate, immigration and the extension of working hours. In the early stage of economic development, the population grew rapidly, and the role of labor in the economy was mainly reflected in the increase in the number of labor. Developed countries in the early stage of industrialization to promote their industrial structure transformation of the initial stage, once by the shortage of labor supply constraints. After a certain stage of economic development, labor quality plays a major role, and the improvement of labor quality mainly comes from human capital investment. In real economic life, the change of industrial structure or the rise and fall of a region will force labor flow and cause frictional unemployment.


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