What is GM food?

發布時間:2020-06-03 11:37

下面為大家整理一篇優秀的essay代寫范文-What is GM food?。本文講述在過去的幾年中,轉基因食品一直是世界范圍內的熱門話題。一大群人,尤其是生物學家聲稱,轉基因食品是安全的,這項技術可以為傳統農業帶來革命。但是,越來越多的民間人士強烈抵制這種食物,他們認為這項技術具有潛在的風險,從長遠來看可能對整個生態系統有害。在超級市場中,我們可以注意到某些蔬菜或食品都貼有“轉基因食品”標簽。你會買嗎?您知道這些產品的來源嗎?

What is GM food?

<标题> Have you heard about genetically modified (GM) food? GM food has been a hot topic during the last few years all over the world. A large group of people, especially biologists, claim that genetically modified food is safe and this technology can bring revolution to the traditional agriculture. However, a growing number of people from the folk fiercely resist this kind of food and they think this technology contains potential risks which may be harmful to all the ecological system in the long run. In the supermarket, we can notice that some vegetables or foods are labeled with “GM food”. Will you buy them? Do you know the origins of these products?

What is GM food?

<标题> According to the World Health Organization (WHO), genetically modified (GM) food are food derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way that does not occur naturally, e.g. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism. The current goal for scientists to study the transgenic technology is cultivating high-quality crops, which have some special features such as high-yielding and pest-resistant. At present, the study of GM food is mainly focus on plants. In the future, it is also possible to develop genetically modified microorganisms and animals.

Historical background

<标题> Back to 1964, scientists have found that DNA can transfer between organisms. In 1983, the first genetically modified plant was produced. This plant is kind of antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The transgenic Flavr Savr tomato was permitted by the FDA for marketing in the U.S. since 1994. In 2013, about 85% of corn and 88% of cotton planted in the U.S. are genetically modified.

Advantages of GM food

<标题> “Genetically modified foods hold great promise that they may provide one of the solutions to help feed growing world populations,” written on the website of Harvard School of Public Health. As people can change the gene of corps, these corps can grow along the way that people designed for them. It is known that DNA is the main material that controls the features of next generation of all creatures. Genes are parts of DNA that control specific features. For example, if biologists find the gene of a plant that can affect its production, then this gene can modified so that the production of the next generation can be increased. Another advantage of GM food is their ability to resist pests. For instance, if people add a kind of gene to cotton, the cotton can be poisonous to cotton bollworms but safe to other animals. By this way, hectares of cottons can be protected from their natural enemies. Besides, the modified genes can also help plants resistant herbicide, cold temperature or drought. By this way, corps can be planted in many regions that are not suitable for planting in the past.

Possible risks of GM food

<标题> It seems that GM food has so many tempting advantages. However, there is no such thing as a free lunch. Critics have predicted numbers of terrible results that are likely brought by GM food. First, the GM food may be harmful to human health. It has been proved by some biologists that GM food is safe to humans from at the present time. Despite of this, GM food has never been widely grown and consumed by humans. Thus, nobody can guarantee that GM food is absolutely non-poisonous to humans. Second, GM food may cause “genetic pollution”, a new phrase brought by transgenes. According to Oxford Dictionary, genetic pollution is “the spread of altered genes from genetically engineered organisms to other, nonengineered organisms, especially by cross-pollination.” Different kinds of creatures have built a gigantic food net in biosphere. The modified gene in one species will unavoidably transmit to other species along the food chain. Even though the modified gene can be proved safe to some kinds of creatures such as humans, they cannot be proved safe to all others. For example, if the anti-pest gene in the cotton is toxic to some other animals, the cotton may kill more animals other than cotton bollworm. This effect may beyond human’s control and become disaster to the biological system. By this way, before finally mature of transgene technology, all the GM plants must be restricted in the lab or experiment fields.

The future of GM food

<标题> From the obtained knowledge, the future of GM food is controversial. On one hand, this technology may bring the traditional agriculture to a new stage, which means people will enter the period that control the features of plants as human’s willing. On the other hand, the quick spread of genetic modified plants can threaten the order of ecological system. As a result, the legitimate control of GM plants must be paid attention by governments and researchers before this new technology is well understood by the society.

Text sources:

http://www2.wmin.ac.uk/~redwayk/lectures/transgenic.htm

http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v31/n9/full/nbt.2686.html

http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Michael Ruse and David Castle, “Genetically Modified Foods: Debating Biotechnology (Contemporary Issues Series)”, Prometheus Books, Nov 1, 2002

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