[Key words] China's tourism promotional materials; schema theory; cultural schema
Abstract: Cultural Schemata often poses great difficulty in the translation of Chinese tourist publicity materials. From the perspective of Schema Theory, this essay tries to analyze the problems translators often encounter in translating cultural schema and to discuss the strategies commonly used in coping with such situations.
Key words: Chinese tourist publicity material; schema theory; cultural schema
reform and opening up, China's tourism industry developed rapidly. China, the mysterious ancient oriental country, with its picturesque landscapes, rich cultural heritage, attracting visitors from around the world. In order to better promote cultural exchange, and promote the development of tourism, more and more Chinese travel information has been translated into English. However, many historic tourist attractions, culture, profound, they load a lot of history and culture for foreign visitors, a complete stranger, and this has brought to the translation of great difficulties.
This article will use the Chinese translation of schema theory analysis of tourist information in a common cultural schema when the problem of dealing with these problems.
a, Schema Theory and Translation
schema theory was first used by the famous philosopher Immanuel Kant (Immanuel Kant) made in 1781. Schema Kant described as the "help us understand the inner structure of the world"  252.1932, the British psychologist Bartlett (FCBartlett) for the first time in his book "Memory" (Remembering) used in Figure type the term, that schema is "In the past the positive reaction or organization of past experience"  201.20 century, 70 years, many linguists and psychologists, such as Minsky (1975), Rumelhart (1980), Carrel and Eisterhold (1988), Eysenck and Keane (1990), etc., the use of schema theory analysis and interpretation of foreign language learning and reading in the process of psychological processes, the formation of the modern schema theory  64.
modern schema theory suggests that schema is organized around a topic of knowledge representation and storage methods are called by the "variable (variable)" or "channel (slot)" the different parts. It is that discourse does not itself have any meaning, but only to the listener, reader how to construct the direction of intent. When readers encounter a stimulus, the associated schema "channel" is filled, schema is "instantiated" (instantiated), the reader's understanding of the corresponding image formation fishes  31-32.
schema is divided into linguistic schemata, formal schemata and content schemata. This article will discuss the content schema refers to the "content of the article part of the background knowledge"  79, is very important for the understanding of the article. It contains a topic usually happens within the conceptual knowledge and information. For example: When Chinese readers to read "Chinese New Year" when it is natural to think of family reunion, a festive dinner, paintings, couplets, firecrackers, highly profitable and so on. Content schemata can help the reader through forecasting, information better and faster understanding of selected articles. Content schemata close contact with the culture, therefore, also often called the "cultural schema."
in translation, the translator's task is to the original information in the translation expressed in the form, so that translation can be activated in the minds of readers of the corresponding schema, to help the reader get the same or similar with the original understanding of the reader. When the reader will understand its own basis of the corresponding schema, but because of cultural differences between China and the West, the same image may be activated in the minds of Western readers a completely different schema.
Example 3: same time, the lake dug soil, according to the needs of the garden layout piled in the mountains, so that the image of the mountain like a big bat artful ... ...
asked: In the meantime, the earth dug from the bottom of the lake was piled up on the hill according to a fastidious landscaping plan, turning the hill into what looks like a giant bat fluffing its wings ...  4
In this translation, the translator seems to faithfully transmit the original information. But the minds of the readers asked activated schema is questionable. In Western countries, "bat" is a kind of ugly creatures, usually with the evil vampire image of a class together. This translation is not only unable to activate the reader familiar with Western cultural schema, but the reader may be in the hearts of a negative impact. Another example:
Example 4: Han Virtual Church: Qing Yi Park, the Yellow Crane Tower is an imitation of the construction of three pavilions, fame Toad House  68.
here, "toad" is a traditional Chinese myth of the animals living in the moon, the ancients often used to suggest the moon. Chinese "toad" and English "toad" refers to an animal are the same, but the reader's cultural schema is not in the Chinese readers of these variables.
travel in the translation of such materials, the translator must take into account the reader's cultural schema, breaking the boundaries of the surface structure of Chinese characters to express the true meaning