代寫 China's tourism promotional materials

發布時間:2020-10-11 14:53
Abstract] Translation of Chinese tourism promotional materials, the material in the cultural schema are often a great deal of trouble to the translator. From the perspective of schema theory, attempt to analyze the translation of cultural schema when the common problems and to discuss coping strategies under the appropriate circumstances. 

[Key words] China's tourism promotional materials; schema theory; cultural schema 
Abstract: Cultural Schemata often poses great difficulty in the translation of Chinese tourist publicity materials. From the perspective of Schema Theory, this essay tries to analyze the problems translators often encounter in translating cultural schema and to discuss the strategies commonly used in coping with such situations. 
Key words: Chinese tourist publicity material; schema theory; cultural schema

reform and opening up, China's tourism industry developed rapidly. China, the mysterious ancient oriental country, with its picturesque landscapes, rich cultural heritage, attracting visitors from around the world. In order to better promote cultural exchange, and promote the development of tourism, more and more Chinese travel information has been translated into English. However, many historic tourist attractions, culture, profound, they load a lot of history and culture for foreign visitors, a complete stranger, and this has brought to the translation of great difficulties. 
This article will use the Chinese translation of schema theory analysis of tourist information in a common cultural schema when the problem of dealing with these problems. 

a, Schema Theory and Translation 

schema theory was first used by the famous philosopher Immanuel Kant (Immanuel Kant) made in 1781. Schema Kant described as the "help us understand the inner structure of the world" [1] 252.1932, the British psychologist Bartlett (FCBartlett) for the first time in his book "Memory" (Remembering) used in Figure type the term, that schema is "In the past the positive reaction or organization of past experience" [2] 201.20 century, 70 years, many linguists and psychologists, such as Minsky (1975), Rumelhart (1980), Carrel and Eisterhold (1988), Eysenck and Keane (1990), etc., the use of schema theory analysis and interpretation of foreign language learning and reading in the process of psychological processes, the formation of the modern schema theory [3] 64. 
modern schema theory suggests that schema is organized around a topic of knowledge representation and storage methods are called by the "variable (variable)" or "channel (slot)" the different parts. It is that discourse does not itself have any meaning, but only to the listener, reader how to construct the direction of intent. When readers encounter a stimulus, the associated schema "channel" is filled, schema is "instantiated" (instantiated), the reader's understanding of the corresponding image formation fishes [4] 31-32. 
schema is divided into linguistic schemata, formal schemata and content schemata. This article will discuss the content schema refers to the "content of the article part of the background knowledge" [5] 79, is very important for the understanding of the article. It contains a topic usually happens within the conceptual knowledge and information. For example: When Chinese readers to read "Chinese New Year" when it is natural to think of family reunion, a festive dinner, paintings, couplets, firecrackers, highly profitable and so on. Content schemata can help the reader through forecasting, information better and faster understanding of selected articles. Content schemata close contact with the culture, therefore, also often called the "cultural schema." 
in translation, the translator's task is to the original information in the translation expressed in the form, so that translation can be activated in the minds of readers of the corresponding schema, to help the reader get the same or similar with the original understanding of the reader. When the reader will understand its own basis of the corresponding schema, but because of cultural differences between China and the West, the same image may be activated in the minds of Western readers a completely different schema. 
Example 3: same time, the lake dug soil, according to the needs of the garden layout piled in the mountains, so that the image of the mountain like a big bat artful ... ... 
asked: In the meantime, the earth dug from the bottom of the lake was piled up on the hill according to a fastidious landscaping plan, turning the hill into what looks like a giant bat fluffing its wings ... [9] 4 
In this translation, the translator seems to faithfully transmit the original information. But the minds of the readers asked activated schema is questionable. In Western countries, "bat" is a kind of ugly creatures, usually with the evil vampire image of a class together. This translation is not only unable to activate the reader familiar with Western cultural schema, but the reader may be in the hearts of a negative impact. Another example: 
Example 4: Han Virtual Church: Qing Yi Park, the Yellow Crane Tower is an imitation of the construction of three pavilions, fame Toad House [9] 68. 
here, "toad" is a traditional Chinese myth of the animals living in the moon, the ancients often used to suggest the moon. Chinese "toad" and English "toad" refers to an animal are the same, but the reader's cultural schema is not in the Chinese readers of these variables. 
travel in the translation of such materials, the translator must take into account the reader's cultural schema, breaking the boundaries of the surface structure of Chinese characters to express the true meaning



圖式理論最早是由著名哲學家康德在1781年(康德)。架構康德形容為“幫助我們了解世界的內部結構”[1],第一次在他的著作“記憶體英國心理學家巴特萊特(FCBartlett)的”(記住)圖型使用的術語,該架構252.1932 “在過去的積極反應或組織以往的經驗”[2] 201.20世紀70年代以來,許多語言學家和心理學家,如明斯基(1975),魯梅哈特(1980),卡雷爾和Eisterhold(1988),艾森克和基恩(1990)等,利用圖式理論分析和解釋外語學習和閱讀的心理過程,在這個過程中形成的現代圖式理論[3] 64。
現代圖式理論認為,組織架構圍繞一個主題的知識表示和存儲方法,被稱為“變量(變量)”或“通道(槽)”的不同部分。這是話語本身沒有任何意義,但只到聽者,讀者如何建構方向的意圖。當讀者遇到的刺激,相關的“通道”模式被填滿,架構“實例”(實例),讀者的理解,相應的圖像形成魚[4] 31-32。
模式分為語言圖式,形式圖式,內容圖式。本文將討論的內容架構是指“內容的文章的背景知識”[5] 79,對文章的理解是非常重要的。它包含一個主題通常發生在概念性的知識和信息。例如:當中國讀者閱讀“中國新年”,當它是很自然的想到家人團聚,團年飯,繪畫,貼春聯,放鞭炮,高利潤等。內容圖式可以幫助讀者通過預測,信息更好更快地了解所選文章。因此,內容圖式與文化的密切接觸,也常常被稱為“文化模式”。
中譯本,譯者的任務是原來的翻譯的形式表達出來的信息,所以,翻譯可以激活相應的架構讀者心目中,幫助讀者獲得相同或相似的,原來的理解讀卡器。有學者指出,“從某種意義上講,可以理解為被翻譯為”模式翻譯'“[6] 50。
由于地理,歷史和文化的原因,一些文明的概念非常熟悉,不能存在于另一種文化完全消失,而沒有相應的表達。讀者“不是一個合適的模式,有沒有辦法快速建立模式”[4] 41,??得到的模式空白。
濟公在中國是一個家喻戶曉的名字,他的形象在中國人心目中扎根。當中國讀者看到“濟公”這是一個字,他們的頭腦馳西貢模式將被激活 - 休閑服,一些瘋狂的話,不同的行為,對富人的仇恨,不仁者,關注不暢等。然而,西方的讀者不知道,“濟公”為什么答應他們。如果句話直接翻譯為“急攻搶富人幫助窮人,并深深喜愛和貧困”的推崇,文化架構的空白,西方讀者的讀者將是一個句子表面的意思,也沒有像中國讀者產生溫暖的感覺。
霍華德指出,“意向的讀者和作者之間的架構差異采用不同的架構來理解文章,”[4] 42。這是中國文化圖式的旅游宣傳資料翻譯中經常遇到的另一個問題。在這種情況下,原來的作者和讀者的模式不同,甚至是相互矛盾的。當讀者將了解它自己的基礎,相應的模式,但由于中國和西方之間的文化差異,在西方讀者的頭腦中一種完全不同的模式,相同的圖像可能會被激活。
例3:同時,湖取土,堆在山的園林布局的需要,從而使圖像的山像一個大蝙蝠巧妙的... ...
問:在此期間,地球從湖底挖堆積在山上一個挑剔的美化計劃,把成什么樣子像一個巨大的蝙蝠翅膀起毛山... [9] 4
例4:涵虛堂:清漪園,黃鶴樓是模仿成名蟾蜍樓建設三個展館,[9] 68。