發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08
初等教育美國留學生碩士課程作業寫作輔導A reflection over the action research article "Conceptual learning and creative problem solving using cooperative learning groups in middle school science classes."
DuBois' (1995) research points out that how to group has an important influence on improving the performance of cooperative learning, he mentions that it should not be based on races or origins, but students' academic abilities to group them, team members should be composed by students of different genders, different abilities, different cultural backgrounds or different races in a school. The theoretical basis for this grouping is that, first of all, the reason for why the cooperative activities among children have been able to promote their growth lies in that children of similar ages may be able to operate in the “Zone of Proximal Development", showing a higher activity than their individual's behavior. Its essence is that in terms of problems that children can not solve independently in their development stage, they can learn to solve with the help of guidance of their peers with relevant knowledge in cooperation (Vygotsky, 1978). Then, if they want to keep new information in memory, and make them be linked with already existing information in memory, students must implement cognitive restructuring or refining of some form towards materials, while the most effective way for refining is to explain the material to others. For a long time, it has been found in researches about cooperative learning groups that, in terms of school achievement, teachers and those being taught are able to benefit, and those who benefit most are students who give others a detailed explanation (Cohen, 1991). Therefore, DuBois' (1995) cooperative learning groups can be summed up as the teaching model that teachers carefully create cooperative context to promote the full participation of students, so that students of different levels of academic abilities can complement each other in cooperation to deepen understanding of a problem, so as to improve the quality of learning. Group members with a different level of intelligence, knowledge structure, ways of thinking, cognitive styles can complement each other. In cooperative learning, students with different levels of knowledge in a group can inspire each other and complement each other to achieve the thinking and intellectual collision, resulting in new ideas to complete learning task creatively.
DuBois' (1995) analyzes that in the teaching of science courses, teachers take the advantages of combination of personal learning and cooperative learning methods. If a teacher always ask students to conduct cooperative discussion immediately after he puts forward a question, it will result in that part of students do not have their own point of view and are overly dependent on others, there is no deep mutual exchange and discussion among them, nor are they impossible to have real interaction, making the cooperation mere formality. Therefore, in the use of cooperative learning model, at the same time, teachers should give students time to learn independently, allowing students to carry out independent thinking independently and dynamically, freely and purposefully according to their level of ability, personality characteristics, trying to solve problems by themselves.
DuBois' (1995) points out that it should frequently change the roles that members of a group assume, which is conducive to the team members’ better integrating into group learning and mitigating conflict within the group. This conclusion gives teachers a reflection that after the formation of a study group, teachers should be committed to improving relations within the group, making clear personal responsibility and building positive interdependence. Teachers should train the manager of a group, allowing him to have work methods to organize group members to carry out an orderly discussion together. Group leader can be assumed by group members in turns, so that more students will be involved to have access to learning, directing, management, which will help to improve the members’ confidence and interest.
Cohen, E. G. (1991). Teaching in Multiculturally Heterogeneous Classrooms: Findings from a Model Program. McGill Journal of Education, 26,7-23. 
DuBois, M. H. (1995).  Conceptual Learning and Creative Problem Solving Using Cooperative Learning Groups in Middle School Science Classes. In S. Spiegel. A. Collins. & J. Lappert (Eds.). Action Research: Perspectives from Teachers’ Classrooms. Science FEAT (Science for Early Adolescence Teachers). Tallahassee, FL: South Eastern Regional Vision for Education. 
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
杜波依斯(1995)的研究指出,如何分組合作學習提高性能有著重要的影響,他提到,它不應該被基于種族或起源,但學生的學術能力,他們組,團隊成員應該由不同性別,不同能力,不同的文化背景或不同種族在一所學校的學生組成。這種分組的理論依據是,首先,為什么孩子們之間的合作活動已經能夠促進其生長的原因在于,年齡相仿的孩子,可能是操作能夠在“最近發展區”,顯示出較高比他們個人的行為活動。其實質是認為,孩子可以不解決獨立發展階段的問題,他們可以學習,幫助指導他們的同齡人具有相關知識合作來解決(維果茨基,1978 ),然后,如果他們希望繼續保持新的信息在內存中,使他們與已存在的信息在內存中,學生必須實現某種形式對材料的認知重組或精煉,精煉而最有效的方法是解釋材料給他人。很長一段時間,它已被發現的研究小組合作學習,在學校的成績,老師和那些被教導能夠受益,誰最受益的是學生誰給別人一個詳細的解釋(科恩,1991),因此,杜波依斯(1995)小組合作學習,可以總結出的教學模式,教師精心打造合作背景下促進學生的全面參與,使不同層次的學術能力的學生可以互相補充其他合作加深理解出了問題,從而提高學習的質量。集團成員不同程度的智力,知識結構,思維方式,認知風格相得益彰,在合作學習中,不同層次的學生知識在一組可以互相啟發,互相配合,以實現的思想和智慧碰撞,產生新的思路,創造性地完成學習任務。
杜波依斯,M. H.(1995)。概念學習和創造性地解決問題,利用小組合作學習在中學理科班。在S.明鏡。 A.柯林斯。 &J. Lappert(1997)。行動研究:教師課堂的視角。科學FEAT(青春期早期教師科學)。塔拉哈西,佛羅里達州南東部地區的教育愿景。
維果茨基,L.S. (1978)。心靈和社會的發展,高等教育的心理過程。劍橋,麻省:哈佛大學出版社。