澳洲essay代寫|自由貿易與環境福利的均衡發

發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08
Coexistence and environmental welfare deficit trade surplus 
Trade promotes economic development through trade growth after joining the WTO led China's economic growth. December 11, 2001 China officially became a WTO member country, after China's trade growth is very rapid. This change from the following figures available evidence: in 2001 exports totaled 2.20244 trillion yuan, in 2002 was 2.69479 trillion yuan in 2010, is 10.09875 trillion yuan. Compared with 2001, ten years is a 359 percent growth rate, average annual growth rate reached 18.4%. Total imports side, 2001 was 2.01592 trillion yuan, in 2002 was 2.44304 trillion yuan, in 2010 was 8.92691 trillion yuan, the total growth rate was 343%, compared with 2001, the average increase is 18%. Import and export trade to economic growth (in GDP index as a reference value) contribution rate is maintained at a high of nearly a quarter, or about 9% of the average GDP growth rate of 25% was driven by the export trade The. 2001 import and export contribution rate was 15 percent and 13 percent, from 2002 to 2010, the average import and export contribution rates were 26% and 28%, of which 2003 the highest value reached 60% or more.
 
At the same time, Chinese people enjoy in reducing the environmental benefits. Environmental benefits are in addition to basic human survival conditions are met under the premise of seeking fresh air and clean water and other environmental rights needs, and to ensure intergenerational equity and sustainable environmental rights. Statistics found that, after joining the WTO significant increase in China's energy consumption and pollution emissions is also expanding, our country does not already exist mild carbon emissions provinces. Compared with the U.S., with the world's leading economies, bilateral trade because of differences in complementary leaving China maintained a trade surplus of more than ten years, at the same time, China is also accused of being the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases. The study data show that from 1994 to 2001 the connotation of polluted conditions index grew steadily, peaking in 2001, followed by a smaller trend. China joined the WTO in imports from the United States included the amount of pollution increases, the amount of pollution reduced exports included. United States, by contrast, with the expansion of trade liberalization and international trade division of labor adjustment mode, the United States due to his country's imports of goods and services for the benefit of their people, to meet their development needs a large number of manufacturing plants transferred to other countries, will also be large part of the carbon emissions shifted to other countries. On the contrary, China has become a "world factory", and with the trade surplus expanded to undertake a large number of people in other countries to meet the needs of carbon emissions.
 
 
Balancing the interests of trade and environment Economic Explanation
 
The relationship between trade and economic growth theory has always been the focus of debate, environmental aspects into which the contradictions become more intense. People are always difficult to balance the crux of the long-term and short-term interests, stage of economic growth and sustainable environmental benefit, enjoyment and environmental benefits of people's material between.
 
First, the stage of economic prosperity need to be vigilant pollution spread. Environmental Kuznets theory that economic growth and environmental pollution inverted U-shaped relationship between, only when the economy develops to a certain stage (generally considered America's per capita GDP reached $ 10,000, or some other country's per capita GDP reached $ 6,000 time), pollution, possible improvements. However, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions long-term trends are not consistent with the Kuznets curve, ie normal energy consumption of exhaustible resources are scarce, as human carbon dioxide emissions while increasing living standards improve, this can sometimes lead to rigidity the environment can not be repaired, or more than the threshold of the environment resulting ecosystem collapse, resulting in environmental capacity dropped significantly. China's current economic development level is still not reached Kuznets turning point, at this stage if the blind pursuit of environmental objectives while ignoring China's economic development is not consistent with real-world needs.
 
Secondly, the international trade environment, the total effect of damage. International trade to bring economic development, concomitant environmental effects has not given number. The environmental effects of trade is broken down into structural effects, technical effects and economies of scale in three aspects. Structure effect is based on the theory of comparative advantage specializes in the production and export of their products have a comparative advantage, comparative disadvantage imports of other products, making the country's output structure changes. Technical effect is mainly because consumers prefer green products and cleaning up the environment resulting from spills of environmentally sound technologies, production units of the total social product reduces environmental pollution, generally positive effect. Scale trade bring economic growth generated by changes in pollutant emissions, in general, how much economic growth, emissions will be a corresponding increase in the number. China empirical data show that comparative advantage is concentrated in a relatively clean, labor-intensive industries, comparative disadvantage more concentrated in capital-intensive pollution, land-intensive and energy-intensive industries, import and export trade growth and the structural trade surpluses are negative effects and economies of scale, and far more than the positive impact of technology-induced change, and thus, at this stage of the environmental effects of trade surplus is negative, ie increased environmental pollution, environmental damage to the total effect.
 
Third, import and export products structural contradictions caused environmental degradation. Study confirmed the data, China imported products are mainly concentrated in the petroleum processing industry, mining industry, chemical industry and other carbon-intensive industries, the export of products and more from the wholesale and retail trade, clothing, electronic equipment manufacturing, etc. low-carbon emission industries. Comparing import and export of complete carbon intensity, exports to other countries is much less than the imported pollution bring domestic pollution, and with the trade surplus continued to expand import and export structure will inevitably exacerbate the effects of negative environmental impact. Based on current export pattern, exports are not the main cause of environmental pollution, on the contrary, is the growth in imports led to the domestic environmental pollution spread.
 
Fourth, the cross-border pollution makes China become a "foreign garbage" paradise. Trade liberalization makes pollution flows from developed to developing countries, developing countries with lower environmental standards, pollution-intensive products has become a refuge. Those with higher environmental standards in developed countries, on the one hand in order to meet the domestic business community get votes to support the government would prefer to perform a lower environmental standards, resulting in the world as a whole rather than on the low environmental standards will be high; On the other hand, in order to curry favor with the radical environmentalists, they frequently denounce the low standards in developing countries to bring a lower level of average environmental benefits, require relatively uniform environmental standards and fair competitive environment. For the optimal level of global environmental benefits considered the world are looking to solve transboundary pollution internalization pathway. Cooperative game theory-based inter-state cooperation plan requires concerted action within the body member states transfer of emissions or pollution must take concerted action to reduce costs, through international financial transfers or bilateral tariff reduction to share domestic abatement costs. However, the uneven distribution of income under the conditions of international cooperation
加入WTO后通過貿易增長帶動了中國的經濟增長。2001年12月11日中國正式成為了世界貿易組織的一個成員國,此后中國的貿易增長是十分迅速的。這從如下的數字變化中可得到佐證:2001年的出口總額是22024.4億元,2002年是26947.9億元,2010年是100987.5億元。與2001年相比,十年間的增長幅度是359%,平均年增幅達到了18.4%。進口總額方面,2001年是20159.2億元,2002年是24430.4億元,2010年是89269.1億元,總的增長幅度是343%,較2001年平均增幅也是18%。
與此同時,中國人享受的環境福利在減少。環境福利是人類除了基本生存條件滿足的前提下追求清新空氣和潔凈水源等環境權的需要,且要保證代際環境權的公平與可持續。統計發現,加入WTO后中國的能源消耗大增,污染排放也在不斷擴大,目前我國已經不存在輕度碳排放的省區。與美國相比,同是世界上首屈一指的經濟體,中美雙邊貿易因為差異互補而使中國保持了十余年來的貿易順差,同時,中國也被指為世界最大的溫室氣體排放國。有關研究數據顯示,1994-2001年的內涵污染條件指標平穩增長,2001年達到頂峰,隨后有變小的趨勢。中國在加入WTO后從美國獲得的進口內含污染量增大,出口內含污染量減小。
利益平衡的貿易與環境經濟學解釋
 
貿易和經濟增長之間的關系理論一直辯論到其中的矛盾更加激烈,環境方面的重點。人們總是難以平衡的長期利益和短期利益的關鍵階段,經濟增長和可持續發展的環境效益,享受和人民群眾的物質之間的環境效益。
 
首先,經濟繁榮的階段,需要警惕污染蔓延。環境庫茲涅茨理論,經濟增長和環境污染的倒U形關系之間,只有當經濟發展到一個階段,一定(一般考慮美國的每人均國內生產總值達到萬美元,或一些其他國家的每人均國內生產總值達到6000美元時間),污染可能改進。然而,能源消耗和二氧化碳排放的長期趨勢是不符合庫茲涅茨曲線,即正常的能源消耗枯竭的資源是稀缺的,作為人類的二氧化碳排放量,同時提高人民生活水平不斷提高,這有時會導致環境的剛性無法修復,或超過環境的門檻導致生態系統崩潰,導致環境容量下降明顯。中國目前的經濟發展水平還沒有達到庫茲涅茨轉折點,在這個階段,如果一味追求環境目標,而忽略了中國的經濟發展是不符合真實世界的需求。
 
其次,國際貿易環境,總的傷害效果。國際貿易帶來經濟的發展,伴隨而來的環境效應還沒有定數。貿易對環境的影響被細分為三個方面的結構效應,技術效應和規模經濟。結構效果比較優勢理論的基礎上,專門在其產品的生產和出口具有比較優勢,其他產品的進口比較劣勢,使得該國產量結構變化。技術效果,主要是因為消費者喜歡的綠色環保產品,并清理泄漏對環境造成的環境無害化技術,生產單位的社會總產品減少了對環境的污染,普遍積極的影響。帶來經濟增長所產生的污染物排放量的變化,一般貿易規模,經濟增長多少,排放量將相應增加的數量。實證數據表明,中國的比較優勢集中在一個相對干凈的,勞動密集型產業,資本密集型的​​污染,土地密集型和能源密集型產業,進口和出口貿易的增長多集中在比較劣勢和結構性貿易盈余為負的效應和經濟規模,遠遠超過技術引起的變化的積極影響,因此,在這個階段對環境的影響,貿易順差為負,即增加了對環境的污染,環境破壞的總的效果。
 
三,進口和出口產品的結構性矛盾造成的環境退化。研究證實的數據,中國進口的產品主要集中在石油加工行業,采礦業,化學工業和其他碳密集型產業,出口的產品和更從批發和零售貿易,服裝,電子設備制造等低碳排放產業。比較完整的碳排放強度的進口和出口,出口到其他國家遠遠小于進口的污染,使國內的污染,并與貿易順差繼續擴大進口和出口結構的影響將不可避免地加劇對環境的負面影響。基于目前的出口模式,出口沒有環境污染的主要原因,相反,進口的增長導致國內環境污染蔓延。
 
四,跨界污染,使中國成為一個“洋垃圾”的天堂。貿易自由化使污染從發達國家向發展中國家流動,發展中國家的環境標準較低,污染密集型​​產品已經成為避難所。那些在發達國家更高的環境標準,一方面是為了滿足國內企業界得到的票數支持政府寧愿執行環境標準較低,造成在世界上作為一個整體,而不是在低環境標準會很高,另一方面,為了討好與激進的環保主義者,他們經常譴責在發展中國家的低標準帶來一個較低的水平,平均環境效益,需要相對統一的環境標準和公平的競爭環境。考慮全球環境效益的最佳水平,世界各國都在尋找解決跨界污染的內在途徑。合作博弈理論為基礎的國家間的合作計劃,要求體成員國轉讓的排放或污染的內采取協調一致的行動必須采取協調一致的行動,以降低成本,通過國際金融轉賬或雙邊關稅減讓分享國內減排成本。

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