澳洲essay代寫|試論后金融危機對于對于貿易

發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08
A Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation practical significance
As the world's two largest developing countries, China and India is not only a major economic power in Asia, but also in the global economy also plays a pivotal role. Economic and trade relations between the two countries on trade and economic cooperation in Asia Pacific, and the whole world economy will have a significant impact. According to Chinese customs statistics, in 2008 the Sino-Indian bilateral trade totaled $ 51.8 billion, 17.8 times that of 2000. According to India, "Financial Express" reported July 27, 2009, Indian Commerce and Industry Minister said that due to weak demand from the United States, while the demand for Chinese products, China has surpassed the United States to become India's largest trading partner.
In the international financial crisis in the context of trade between China and India, although subject to different degrees of impact, but still maintained a relatively strong vitality. China and India are in this round under the shadow of the global financial crisis, the two fastest-growing countries, and these two economies, the development model is very different. 
India seeks to emulate the success of China, hoping for an increasingly large in the manufacturing sector of the labor force to provide employment opportunities. While China is trying to emulate the Indian IT, pharmaceutical industry and other areas of relatively high levels of knowledge to succeed. Sino-Indian economic and trade relations developed rapidly has become a new bright spot in Sino-Indian relations, but also help to improve the region's confidence in coping with the financial crisis struck.
 
Second, the financial crisis on the impact of the Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation
 
Currently, the world economy is facing a financial crisis and the economic development cycle, double pressure, in this case, although the economy of China and India is still growing, but the growth rate decreased significantly, external financial turmoil, economic development environment deteriorated significantly. Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation between the main actors in the enterprise, however, under the impact of the financial crisis, consumer confidence declined, their liquidity difficulties, resulting in a large number of business failures, many companies shrink the scale of production. Some projects have been launched forced to shut down, some of the original agreement may be set aside, and Indian economic and trade cooperation under attack. For example, China is the world's largest iron ore demand, India is the second in Australia, Brazil's third largest iron ore in China after the country of origin for 80% of its iron ore exports are sold to China, and occupy its trade with China more than 70%. Economic crisis Chinese steel production fell sharply, despite the global iron ore prices have dropped, but the Chinese enterprises overall sluggish demand for iron ore, iron ore demand in India also showed a downward trend, thereby further increasing trade deficit with China, India, India turn to other commodities exports to China to take anti-dumping policy, the impact of economic and trade relations between the two countries. The economic crisis is the main adverse effects:
(A) India's trade protectionism
Despite the rapid development of Sino-Indian trade, India and China's enterprises to invest in long-term access to goods skeptical and investment review and take frequent anti-dumping measures. Relevant information, India the number of anti-dumping on China after the United States.
After the financial crisis, trade protectionism worldwide upward trend. Although India prides itself on its own domestic demand-driven growth model is, once admission suffered financial crisis is relatively small, or even that the financial crisis to provide the opportunity to catch up with China, because relying on export-driven growth in China subject to greater impact. But the reality is that India has failed in a crisis spared. India's economy also suffered rupee depreciation, the stock market has shrunk, business failures, capital mobility, stress and other problems.
In order to stimulate domestic economic growth, support domestic enterprises to survive, India has taken a series of trade protection measures, particularly against China initiated anti-dumping actions and more. Especially in the January 23, 2009, India announced a ban on imports of toys from China, and although some products to relax the conditions, but its trade protectionism is not self-evident.
(Two) the dispute intensified development model
At present, the international community's development model mainly to the United States as the representative of free-market capitalism, the European Union, represented by the welfare capitalism, as the representative of the Japanese developmental state capitalist model and emerging countries China and India mode. Since the 1990s, the economic problems in Europe and Japan are more favor its development model has been America's free-market capitalism. "American model" or "Washington Consensus", whose purpose is to emphasize free market principles, advocated minimizing the role of government, full liberalization and market-oriented. "China model" especially in maintaining social stability of the active innovation, bold practice, in order to achieve sustained economic growth, social development, the country's peaceful development of a set of ideas, experience and theory. Chinese model emphasizes pragmatism against ideology as the guiding principle; emphasizes co-ordinate domestic and international situations, adhere to self-reliance and opening combination; emphasizes the overall co-ordination of government and market two. "Indian model" Unlike China, the basic idea is to promote democracy and economic liberalization under the system, and gradually relax the traditional government regulation to encourage private enterprises, the development of high-tech industries and services, and to achieve rapid economic development.
Third, the financial crisis, the Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation measures
(A) mining economies are highly complementary, and deepen economic and trade cooperation
And the "security dilemma" compared to more opportunities to win the economic field. Sino-Indian model of development are different, but highly complementary. Chinese labor force, high efficiency, high efficiency the Indian capital, a combination that will produce "economic efficiency" effect. Future the two sides can focus on strengthening cooperation in the following areas. First, the structure of complementary goods. From the commodity composition, India's merchandise exports to China are still raw materials or low-value-added products, China's exports of goods more diverse and higher value-added, such as heavy machinery. Since both the overall economic development model and the specific differences in level of industrial development, the complementarity of this commodity trade can continue. Two complementary within the same industry. The two countries in similar sectors, such as chemicals, machinery and textiles and other areas of intra-industry trade is also entirely possible. The two can be combined with the development of their own characteristics, and constantly improve their own similar products in different levels of the value chain of comparative advantage, expanding complementarities within the same industry. For example, China and India in the field of textile exports from India competing enable Chinese enterprises to import textile raw materials, and their production and export of garments. Thus, the internal trade between the two countries through the textile industry will be able to compete into new cooperation opportunities. Three complementary areas of IT services. Indian software development, Chinese hardware developed countries to establish joint ventures in the IT field have quite broad prospects.
(Two) encourage enterprises to go out and strengthen mutual investment and cooperation
India has always been wary of China, in many "sensitive" areas for Chinese enterprises to invest in handicapping. After the financial crisis, India respite serious problem of a shortage of capital mobility, the relaxation of foreign investment restrictions in some fields, and encourage enterprises to overseas financing. October 2008, India Securities and Exchange Commission announced the lifting of foreign investment up to 40% of the investment threshold requirement in order to "retain" is rapidly outflow of foreign capital. February 2009, the Indian government said it would relax foreign direct investment in the capital of India, who accounted for 50% of the Indian capital of the joint venture to build a new business is always seen as Indian companies. Under the original legislation, where there are foreign enterprises to establish India to join the new enterprise is still seen as a joint venture. Under the new rules, a majority of all the Indian capital New companies will not be subject to government on the proportion of foreign investment in different sectors of the restrictions. The move is no doubt the Government of India for Chinese enterprises to enter India provides an opportunity to enhance the economic interdependence of bilateral relations is bound to be used as a stabilizer. In addition, the two big companies in the global market is much more competitive strength to enhance and speed up the "going out" pace. The strength of the Indian private sector in the economic life plays an extremely important role, only two Tata and Ambani family business's sales accounted for about 5% of India's GDP. At the same time, Chinese enterprises can also with strong financial resources, through capital injection, mergers and acquisitions and direct investment, etc., to accelerate to enter the international market. The international financial crisis, many large Western company's assets shrink, or even facing bankruptcy, international commodity prices fell sharply than before, as the Chinese and Indian firms to enter the international market provides a rare opportunity.
中印經貿合作的現實意義
作為世界上兩個最大的發展中國家,中國和印度不僅是亞洲的一個經濟大國,但在全球經濟中也起著舉足輕重的作用。將有一個顯著的經濟和貿易關系,兩國之間的貿易和經濟合作在亞太地區和整個世界經濟的影響。據中國海關統計,2008年中印雙邊貿易總額達51.8十億,2000年的17.8倍。據印度,“金融快報”報道2009年7月27日,印度商業和工業部長說,由于來自美國的疲弱需求,而市場對中國產品的需求,中國已經超過美國成為印度最大的貿易伙伴。
在國際金融危機的背景下,中國和印度之間的貿易,雖然受到不同程度的影響,但仍保持了相對強勁的生命力。中國和印度在這一輪全球金融危機的影響,增長速度最快的兩個國家,這兩個國家的陰影下,發展模式是非常不同的。
印度試圖仿效中國的成功,希望在制造業的勞動力提供就業機會越來越大。雖然中國正試圖仿效印度的IT,制藥行業和其他領域的知識水平相對較高成功。中印經貿關系發展迅速,已成為中印關系的新亮點,但也有助于提高該地區的信心,應對金融危機爆發。
 
其次,金融危機的影響中印兩國的經濟和貿易合作
 
目前,世界經濟正面臨著金融危機和經濟發展的周期,雙重壓力下,在這種情況下,盡管中國和印度的經濟仍在增長,但增速明顯下降,外部金融動蕩,經濟發展環境顯著惡化。然而,中印兩國之間的經貿合作在企業的主要演員,在金融危機的影響下,消費者信心下降,資金周轉的困難,造成了大量的企業倒閉,許多企業縮減生產規模。被迫關閉,一些原來的協議可能會擱置,受到攻擊和印度的經貿合作,有些項目已經啟動。例如,中國是世界最大的鐵礦石的需求,印度是第二次在澳大利亞,巴西的第三大鐵礦石在中國原產地的鐵礦石出口80%的國家后,出售給中國,并占據與中國的貿易70%以上。經濟危機中國鋼鐵產量大幅下跌,盡管全球鐵礦石價格有所回落,但中國企業整體對鐵礦石的需求疲軟,印度鐵礦石需求也呈下降趨勢,從而進一步增加貿易赤字與中國,印度,印度轉向其他大宗商品對中國的出口采取反傾銷政策,兩國之間的經濟和貿易關系的影響。經濟危機是主要的不利影響:
(一)印度的貿易保護主義
盡管中印貿易,印度和中國的企業投資在長期獲得商品持懷疑態度和投資審查,并采取反傾銷措施頻繁的快速發展。相關資料顯示,印度對中國反傾銷的數量僅次于美國。
金融危機之后,全球貿易保護主義呈上升趨勢。盡管印度自詡自己的內需驅動型增長模式,一旦入院遭遇,因為依靠出口導向型的增長在中國受金融危機的影響相對較小,甚至可以說,金融危機提供的機會,趕上中國更大的影響。但現實情況是,印度一直未能在危機中幸免。印度的經濟也遭受了盧比貶值,股市縮水,企業倒閉,資本流動,壓力和其他問題。
為了刺激國內經濟增長,支持國內企業的生存,印度已經采取了一系列貿易保護措施,特別是對中國發起反傾銷行動和更多。特別是在2009年1月23日,印度宣布禁止從中國進口玩具,但也有一些產品,放寬條件,但其貿易保護主義是不言自明。
(二)爭端加劇發展模式
目前,國際社會的發展模式主要是美國作為自由市場資本主義,歐盟,福利資本主義所代表的代表,作為日本發展國家資本主義模式和新興國家中國和印度模式的代表。 20世紀90年代以來,在歐洲和日本的經濟問題,更有利于其發展模式一直是美國的自由市場資本主義。 “美國模式”或“華盛頓共識”,其目的是強調自由市場的原則,主張減少政府,全面開放和以市場為導向的作用。 “中國模式”,特別是在維護社會穩定的積極創新,大膽實踐,以實現經濟持續增長,社會發展,國家和平發展的一套想法,經驗和理論。中國模式對思想為指導原則強調實用主義,強調統籌國內國際兩個大局,堅持自力更生和對外開放結合,強調整體協調政府和市場兩種。 “印度模式”與中國不同,其基本思路是,以促進民主和經濟自由化的體制下,逐漸放松傳統的政府調控,鼓勵民營企業,高新技術產業和服務業的發展,并實現經濟的快速發展。
第三,金融危機的影響,中印經貿合作的措施
(一)開采經濟互補性強,深化經貿合作
和“安全困境”相比,在經濟領域贏得更多的機會。中印兩國的發展模式不同,但具有很強的互補性。中國勞動力,高效率,高效益的印度首都的組合,會產生“經濟效益”的效果。未來,雙方可以重點在以下幾個方面加強合作。首先,互補品的結構。從商品構成中,印度的商品出口到中國的原料或低附加值產品,中國的出口更加多樣化和高附加值的商品,如重型機械。由于整體經濟發展模式和產業發展水平的具體差異,這種商品貿易的互補性,可以繼續進行。在同行業中兩個互補的。這兩個國家在類似的行業,如化工,機械,紡織和其他領域的產業內貿易也完全有可能的。這兩個可以結合自身的特點與發展,并不斷提高自身的同類產品在價值鏈的不同層次的比較優勢,擴大在同行業中的互補性。例如,中國和印度在該領域來自印度的競爭使中國企業進口紡織原料,服裝生產和出口的紡織品出口。因此,紡織行業通過兩國之間的內部貿易將能夠競爭進入新的合作機會。三個互補的領域的IT服務。印度的軟件開發,中國五金發達國家在IT領域建立合資企業,具有相當廣闊的前景。
(二)鼓勵企業走出去,加強相互投資與合作
印度一直對中國抱有戒心,在許多“敏感”領域,為中國企業投資的掣肘。金融危機發生后,印度喘息嚴重短缺的問題,資本的流動性,在某些領域,放寬對外商投資的限制,鼓勵企業到海外融資。 2008年10月,印度證券交易委員會宣布解除外資高達40%的投資門檻要求,以“留住”外資迅速流出。 2009年2月,印度政府表示將放寬外國直接投資一直被視為印度公司在印度,印度首都合資興建一個新的業務占50%的資本。根據原來的法例,那里有外國企業建立印度加入新的企業仍然被看作是一家合資企業。在新規則下,所有在印度首都新公司的大部分將不會受到政府的限制外商投資于不同行業的比例上。毫無疑問,此舉是中國企業進入印度,印度政府提供了一個機會,以加強雙邊關系的經濟相互依存必將被用作穩定劑。此外,兩大公司在全球市場上更具競爭力的實力加強和加快“走出去”步伐。印度私營部門的力量在經濟生活中扮演著極其重要的作用,只有兩個塔塔和安巴尼家族企業的銷售額占印度國內生產總值的5%左右。與此同時,中國企業也可以憑借雄厚的資金資源,通過資本注入,兼并和收購,直接投資,等等,加快進入國際市場。國際金融危機,許多西方大公司的資產縮水,甚至面臨破產,國際大宗商品價格大幅下跌,比之前,中國和印度的企業進入國際市場提供了一個難得的機會

 

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