As the world's two largest developing countries, China and India is not only a major economic power in Asia, but also in the global economy also plays a pivotal role. Economic and trade relations between the two countries on trade and economic cooperation in Asia Pacific, and the whole world economy will have a significant impact. According to Chinese customs statistics, in 2008 the Sino-Indian bilateral trade totaled $ 51.8 billion, 17.8 times that of 2000. According to India, "Financial Express" reported July 27, 2009, Indian Commerce and Industry Minister said that due to weak demand from the United States, while the demand for Chinese products, China has surpassed the United States to become India's largest trading partner.
In the international financial crisis in the context of trade between China and India, although subject to different degrees of impact, but still maintained a relatively strong vitality. China and India are in this round under the shadow of the global financial crisis, the two fastest-growing countries, and these two economies, the development model is very different.
India seeks to emulate the success of China, hoping for an increasingly large in the manufacturing sector of the labor force to provide employment opportunities. While China is trying to emulate the Indian IT, pharmaceutical industry and other areas of relatively high levels of knowledge to succeed. Sino-Indian economic and trade relations developed rapidly has become a new bright spot in Sino-Indian relations, but also help to improve the region's confidence in coping with the financial crisis struck.
Second, the financial crisis on the impact of the Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation
Currently, the world economy is facing a financial crisis and the economic development cycle, double pressure, in this case, although the economy of China and India is still growing, but the growth rate decreased significantly, external financial turmoil, economic development environment deteriorated significantly. Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation between the main actors in the enterprise, however, under the impact of the financial crisis, consumer confidence declined, their liquidity difficulties, resulting in a large number of business failures, many companies shrink the scale of production. Some projects have been launched forced to shut down, some of the original agreement may be set aside, and Indian economic and trade cooperation under attack. For example, China is the world's largest iron ore demand, India is the second in Australia, Brazil's third largest iron ore in China after the country of origin for 80% of its iron ore exports are sold to China, and occupy its trade with China more than 70%. Economic crisis Chinese steel production fell sharply, despite the global iron ore prices have dropped, but the Chinese enterprises overall sluggish demand for iron ore, iron ore demand in India also showed a downward trend, thereby further increasing trade deficit with China, India, India turn to other commodities exports to China to take anti-dumping policy, the impact of economic and trade relations between the two countries. The economic crisis is the main adverse effects:
(A) India's trade protectionism
Despite the rapid development of Sino-Indian trade, India and China's enterprises to invest in long-term access to goods skeptical and investment review and take frequent anti-dumping measures. Relevant information, India the number of anti-dumping on China after the United States.
After the financial crisis, trade protectionism worldwide upward trend. Although India prides itself on its own domestic demand-driven growth model is, once admission suffered financial crisis is relatively small, or even that the financial crisis to provide the opportunity to catch up with China, because relying on export-driven growth in China subject to greater impact. But the reality is that India has failed in a crisis spared. India's economy also suffered rupee depreciation, the stock market has shrunk, business failures, capital mobility, stress and other problems.
In order to stimulate domestic economic growth, support domestic enterprises to survive, India has taken a series of trade protection measures, particularly against China initiated anti-dumping actions and more. Especially in the January 23, 2009, India announced a ban on imports of toys from China, and although some products to relax the conditions, but its trade protectionism is not self-evident.
(Two) the dispute intensified development model
At present, the international community's development model mainly to the United States as the representative of free-market capitalism, the European Union, represented by the welfare capitalism, as the representative of the Japanese developmental state capitalist model and emerging countries China and India mode. Since the 1990s, the economic problems in Europe and Japan are more favor its development model has been America's free-market capitalism. "American model" or "Washington Consensus", whose purpose is to emphasize free market principles, advocated minimizing the role of government, full liberalization and market-oriented. "China model" especially in maintaining social stability of the active innovation, bold practice, in order to achieve sustained economic growth, social development, the country's peaceful development of a set of ideas, experience and theory. Chinese model emphasizes pragmatism against ideology as the guiding principle; emphasizes co-ordinate domestic and international situations, adhere to self-reliance and opening combination; emphasizes the overall co-ordination of government and market two. "Indian model" Unlike China, the basic idea is to promote democracy and economic liberalization under the system, and gradually relax the traditional government regulation to encourage private enterprises, the development of high-tech industries and services, and to achieve rapid economic development.
Third, the financial crisis, the Sino-Indian economic and trade cooperation measures
(A) mining economies are highly complementary, and deepen economic and trade cooperation
And the "security dilemma" compared to more opportunities to win the economic field. Sino-Indian model of development are different, but highly complementary. Chinese labor force, high efficiency, high efficiency the Indian capital, a combination that will produce "economic efficiency" effect. Future the two sides can focus on strengthening cooperation in the following areas. First, the structure of complementary goods. From the commodity composition, India's merchandise exports to China are still raw materials or low-value-added products, China's exports of goods more diverse and higher value-added, such as heavy machinery. Since both the overall economic development model and the specific differences in level of industrial development, the complementarity of this commodity trade can continue. Two complementary within the same industry. The two countries in similar sectors, such as chemicals, machinery and textiles and other areas of intra-industry trade is also entirely possible. The two can be combined with the development of their own characteristics, and constantly improve their own similar products in different levels of the value chain of comparative advantage, expanding complementarities within the same industry. For example, China and India in the field of textile exports from India competing enable Chinese enterprises to import textile raw materials, and their production and export of garments. Thus, the internal trade between the two countries through the textile industry will be able to compete into new cooperation opportunities. Three complementary areas of IT services. Indian software development, Chinese hardware developed countries to establish joint ventures in the IT field have quite broad prospects.
(Two) encourage enterprises to go out and strengthen mutual investment and cooperation
India has always been wary of China, in many "sensitive" areas for Chinese enterprises to invest in handicapping. After the financial crisis, India respite serious problem of a shortage of capital mobility, the relaxation of foreign investment restrictions in some fields, and encourage enterprises to overseas financing. October 2008, India Securities and Exchange Commission announced the lifting of foreign investment up to 40% of the investment threshold requirement in order to "retain" is rapidly outflow of foreign capital. February 2009, the Indian government said it would relax foreign direct investment in the capital of India, who accounted for 50% of the Indian capital of the joint venture to build a new business is always seen as Indian companies. Under the original legislation, where there are foreign enterprises to establish India to join the new enterprise is still seen as a joint venture. Under the new rules, a majority of all the Indian capital New companies will not be subject to government on the proportion of foreign investment in different sectors of the restrictions. The move is no doubt the Government of India for Chinese enterprises to enter India provides an opportunity to enhance the economic interdependence of bilateral relations is bound to be used as a stabilizer. In addition, the two big companies in the global market is much more competitive strength to enhance and speed up the "going out" pace. The strength of the Indian private sector in the economic life plays an extremely important role, only two Tata and Ambani family business's sales accounted for about 5% of India's GDP. At the same time, Chinese enterprises can also with strong financial resources, through capital injection, mergers and acquisitions and direct investment, etc., to accelerate to enter the international market. The international financial crisis, many large Western company's assets shrink, or even facing bankruptcy, international commodity prices fell sharply than before, as the Chinese and Indian firms to enter the international market provides a rare opportunity.
目前，國際社會的發展模式主要是美國作為自由市場資本主義，歐盟，福利資本主義所代表的代表，作為日本發展國家資本主義模式和新興國家中國和印度模式的代表。 20世紀90年代以來，在歐洲和日本的經濟問題，更有利于其發展模式一直是美國的自由市場資本主義。 “美國模式”或“華盛頓共識”，其目的是強調自由市場的原則，主張減少政府，全面開放和以市場為導向的作用。 “中國模式”，特別是在維護社會穩定的積極創新，大膽實踐，以實現經濟持續增長，社會發展，國家和平發展的一套想法，經驗和理論。中國模式對思想為指導原則強調實用主義，強調統籌國內國際兩個大局，堅持自力更生和對外開放結合，強調整體協調政府和市場兩種。 “印度模式”與中國不同，其基本思路是，以促進民主和經濟自由化的體制下，逐漸放松傳統的政府調控，鼓勵民營企業，高新技術產業和服務業的發展，并實現經濟的快速發展。
印度一直對中國抱有戒心，在許多“敏感”領域，為中國企業投資的掣肘。金融危機發生后，印度喘息嚴重短缺的問題，資本的流動性，在某些領域，放寬對外商投資的限制，鼓勵企業到海外融資。 2008年10月，印度證券交易委員會宣布解除外資高達40％的投資門檻要求，以“留住”外資迅速流出。 2009年2月，印度政府表示將放寬外國直接投資一直被視為印度公司在印度，印度首都合資興建一個新的業務占50％的資本。根據原來的法例，那里有外國企業建立印度加入新的企業仍然被看作是一家合資企業。在新規則下，所有在印度首都新公司的大部分將不會受到政府的限制外商投資于不同行業的比例上。毫無疑問，此舉是中國企業進入印度，印度政府提供了一個機會，以加強雙邊關系的經濟相互依存必將被用作穩定劑。此外，兩大公司在全球市場上更具競爭力的實力加強和加快“走出去”步伐。印度私營部門的力量在經濟生活中扮演著極其重要的作用，只有兩個塔塔和安巴尼家族企業的銷售額占印度國內生產總值的5％左右。與此同時，中國企業也可以憑借雄厚的資金資源，通過資本注入，兼并和收購，直接投資，等等，加快進入國際市場。國際金融危機，許多西方大公司的資產縮水，甚至面臨破產，國際大宗商品價格大幅下跌，比之前，中國和印度的企業進入國際市場提供了一個難得的機會