澳洲essay代寫|外貿小企業發展的分析

發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08
Small micro-enterprise development, the quality of foreign trade, foreign direct impact on export growth and socio-economic stability and healthy development. Because of their size, financing difficulties, weak anti-risk awareness and ability, in the context of the current foreign trade downturn, many small and micro enterprises, "a single weak connection", "have not received" missed opportunities, hindering development. Therefore, to strengthen foreign trade enterprises to small micro multidimensional support.
First, the rise of small and micro enterprises and development of foreign trade
On the one hand, the large number of small and micro foreign trade enterprises. Over the past three decades the development of small and micro enterprises in our country very quickly, a huge number. According to China International Cooperation Association of SMEs "issued by China and healthy development of small and medium micro enterprises report (2012)," the end of 2011, the national industrial and commercial registration is indeed enterprise 12,531,000, 37,565,000 individual businesses, including small and medium enterprises and micro enterprises accounted for 99.7% of the total. A total national export enterprises small and micro enterprises 188000, China accounted for 73% of the total number of export enterprises, concentrated mostly foreign workers. According to statistics, in 2011 exports of small and micro enterprises in Beijing more than 5,000 export enterprises in Beijing accounted for over 80% of the total number of small and micro enterprises in 2011 to achieve exports of $ 2.75 billion, in solving the employment, promotion of exports and stimulate economic growth and security social stability has played a positive role.
The other hand, the proportion of foreign trade volume is growing. Small and micro enterprises in foreign trade turnover in the proportion is increasing, provided export more than 60% of total exports, for example, exports of small and micro enterprises in 2010 accounted for 72% of all exports in 2011, exports of small and micro enterprises to create Percentage of 65%. Foreign trade data from the local government can also see the growth of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade growing out of proportion, for example, from January to June 2012, Shaoxing County, export performance of small and micro enterprises 2729, an increase of 212 home, exports increased to $ 1.81 billion, with an average growth rate of 2.3 percent, the county accounted for 38.3% of total exports.
Government foreign trade enterprises to small micro-policy support is gradually increasing. September 12, 2012, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to discuss "the steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of opinions" to determine the eight policy measures to support the development of foreign trade, the meeting noted that the expansion of the scale of financing, reduce financing costs, support commercial banks to small and micro enterprises efforts to expand trade financing, increasing export enterprises that meet the requirements of the loan. September 16, 2012 the State Council issued the "State Council on promoting the steady growth of foreign trade a number of observations (Guo Ban Fa [2012] No. 49)", on the State Department's eight measures were refined. Subsequently, the district also implement the State Council issued the "steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of views," the implementation of the document, according to the different characteristics of foreign trade over from foreign policy to support small and micro enterprise development.
Second, the development of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade problems
Since the 2008 financial crisis, shrinking demand in the international market and international competition under the dual pressure, small and micro enterprises as small scale, weak anti-risk ability and other factors, affected more severely, to explore the international market is facing greater pressure, survival and development more difficult.
(A) orders increased risk
As the debt crisis in Europe and America, and now foreign customers often extended credit period, small and micro enterprises bear the risk alone does not start, can only stand and missed orders. Electrical Co., Ltd. Chongqing Jin Sen Poer such business mainly export General Generator main export regions including India, Cambodia, Africa and other countries and regions, this year, enterprises operating rate was 60%, representing a decrease of three to 40%. Has anyone ever refused to take delivery at the port of African buyers, nor with returned or resold, the last 50,000 dollars to 17,000 U.S. dollars of goods by customs cheap at auction. Ten single business to run as long as a single one, profits all gone. For risk issues to consider, a lot of small and micro enterprises in order not to bear a single run risks, would prefer not to take foreign orders.
(Two) financing difficulties
Large financial institutions loan financing current high threshold, strict requirements, financing guarantee system is not perfect, coupled with the presence of small and micro enterprises is small, weak anti-risk ability, financial management is not standardized, loan management is difficult and other deficiencies, and financial institutions to lend prudential policy conflicts, resulting in a lot of good prospects for the development of small and micro enterprises is difficult to obtain bank credit support and other financial institutions are often faced with the dilemma of funding strand breaks, was in serious financial difficulties.
(Three) increased labor costs
In recent years, with the economic and social development and the increased mobility of workers across the country especially in economically developed coastal areas of frequent "labor shortage" phenomenon, recruitment difficulties, labor expensive, hard to keep people have become affected and constrained enterprises to survive, important factor in the development and critical factor. Most small and micro enterprises are labor-intensive enterprises, there is a poor working conditions, long working hours, labor-intensive, employee benefits and safeguards are not in place and other issues, leading to business recruitment difficulties, to keep people harder. Corporate desperation, you can only pay through recruitment, improved benefits to people, so that labor costs continue to increase, a few years ago so that foreign companies would envy demographic dividend vanished.
(Four) export credit insurance rate is very low
Export credit insurance is a World Trade Organization (WTO) rules allow for the promotion of foreign trade and economic development of effective tools, but also the international practice, can help companies in the process of developing international market effectively avoid foreign exchange risks, increasing trade opportunities and expand financing channel to track the buyer information. After the insured, in the event the buyer bankruptcy, insolvency, arrears, reject the goods and other business risks, the buyer country outbreak of war, unrest, trade controls, exchange controls and other political risks, companies receive up to the amount of compensation for the loss of exports to 90 %. Foreign trade enterprises mostly small and micro stragglers, the state alone, in the first of the crisis affected trade, export credit insurance to protect small and micro enterprises to avoid foreign counterparty risks dragging account debts deadbeat. But it is precisely the most vulnerable to crisis insurance rates for small and micro enterprises has always been very low. In Shanghai, for example, currently there are about 15,000 small micro Shanghai export enterprises, but short-term export credit insurance insurance initiative of few, underwriting coverage is low. Coverage ratio is low, on the one hand is the enterprise awareness is still relatively weak, the other part of the business that the high risk premium rates higher in overseas markets, low risk areas is not necessary to buy.
Third, the development of small and micro enterprises multidimensional support foreign trade
(A) implement the national policy
To implement the State Council executive meeting "on the promotion of foreign trade steady growth in number of opinions" spirit of small and micro enterprises export credit insurance coverage, and guide to help small and micro export enterprises to avoid risks, to support small and micro export enterprises to explore the international market, local should be introduced to implement the State policy specific measures to promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example, the Beijing Municipal Commerce Commission and the China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation signed a "small and micro enterprises in Beijing (2011 Exports $ 1,000,000 (including) the following) the insurance of export credit insurance agreement," according to the agreement, Beijing for the 2011 annual export scale In the $ 1 million (including) or less, and in 2012 foreign trade export performance for the insurance of small and micro enterprises short-term export credit insurance. Yiwu City, introduced the "market dealers and small micro-credit insurance foreign trade companies to support linkage protection program", provides in July 2012 until the end of 2012, Yiwu 378 qualifying foreign trade circulation enterprises, small and micro insurance export credit insurance, the municipal finance "full pay." October 2012, Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Commerce, Department of Finance and the China Credit Insurance Changchun Office decided to start "one hundred small and micro enterprises export credit insurance support scheme" for the province last year, customs export data $ 3,000,000 following key industries, export potential of 100 small micro-export enterprises, the premium paid in full by the government.
(Two) to strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises
As the European debt crisis continue to simmer and weak global economic growth, China's foreign trade situation is still grim, financial institutions must strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises. Introduced a number of financial institutions for small and micro enterprises, low trade barriers, low-cost insurance and tailor-made package of financial solutions that can help to improve SMEs explore international market confidence and ability to cultivate new growth points of foreign trade. To promote foreign trade growth, financial institutions have taken a number of positive measures, such as CITIC Insurance Company of Shanghai in 2011 exports of $ 3 million below the small and micro enterprises presented export credit insurance policies, while reducing the insurance threshold and simplify insurance processes. CITIC Bank Insurance Company and Jiangsu were qualified nearly 400 small and micro enterprises to provide $ 1 billion in export insurance for small and medium sized foreign trade enterprises to provide three-year 10 billion yuan of intent financing support.
(Three) set up to support small and micro foreign trade enterprises special funds
June 2012 revised "SME development funds management approach" a big change from the original type of enterprise is to support medium-sized and small businesses two categories, into medium-sized, small and micro-enterprises three categories, which means poor ability to resist risks many micro-enterprises will be the focus of special funds to support. Also began to set over the foreign trade enterprises of small and micro special support funds, for example, according to the latest introduction of the "foreign trade enterprises in Ningbo City, a small micro-finance assistance funds use practices (Trial)", to support small and micro enterprises to develop foreign trade export tax rebate accounts managed loans, export financing and credit insurance policies chattel mortgage financing. From 1 July 2012 onwards, in line with the conditions of Ningbo small micro-finance services to foreign trade enterprises to provide financing, guarantees, chattel mortgage regulatory services and bad debts, to give a certain percentage of their actual bad debt bear the loss compensation, foreign trade of small micro- Managed Accounts enterprises to develop export tax rebate interest loans given to expenditure incurred, give no more than 30% and single companies received less than 20 million in interest subsidies. But like so specifically for small and micro Ningbo foreign trade enterprises of special funds is still rare, I hope the local government can treat small micro specialized foreign trade enterprise, after all, small and micro enterprises and domestic trade is still very large differences, the need for differentiated support.
(Four) to provide administrative services to facilitate customs targeted
To support the healthy development of small and medium micro foreign trade enterprises to cope with sluggish world economy and the European debt crisis adversely affected, shall facilitate customs administrative services targeted at improving customs supervision and services from the perspective of the policy to the extent permitted maximum limits to reduce the small micro-enterprise import and export customs clearance costs, and promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example Guangdong Customs Guangdong Branch led jointly launched to support small and medium micro enterprises import and export eight measures, including the promotion of customs duties applied electronic payment systems to encourage small and medium micro enterprises to use electronic payment of customs duties, customs clearance and cost-saving enterprise; promote the collection and facilitation, implementation of import and export commodities pre-price, pre-classified, pre-determination of origin; encourage qualified small and medium micro enterprises to choose the "territorial declaration, port clearance" clearance mode; fully open classification clearance reform, to encourage more qualified enterprises to enjoy the "low-risk quick release" clearance facilitation; pair of small micro processing trade enterprises to carry out foreign trade, customs, enterprise tripartite network management, to facilitate enterprises for contract approval, filing procedures; Customs port set up for small and medium micro enterprises work window, provide a "24-hour reservation clearance" services. This eight measures for small and medium micro Guangdong import and export of all aspects of import and export enterprises, targeted to simplify customs clearance process, saving companies the operating hours and cost, and allow more qualified enterprises can enjoy the "low-risk quick release "clearance facilitation.
 
小微企業發展,以質量對外貿易,外國直接影響出口增長和社會經濟的穩定和健康發展。由于規模小,融資困難,弱抗風險意識和能力的背景下,當前外貿持續低迷,許多小型和微型企業,“一個單一的弱連接”,“還沒有接到”錯過了機會,阻礙了發展。因此,要加強小微多維支持外貿企業。
首先,小型和微型企業的崛起和發展外貿
一方面,大量的小微外貿企業。在過去的三十年中,小型和微型企業在我國的發展非常迅速,數量巨大。據中國中小企業國際合作協會“頒發的中國健康發展中小微企業的報告(2012年),”2011年年底,全國工商登記的確37,565,000 12,531,000企業,個體工商戶,包括小型和中小型企業和微型企業占總數的99.7%。全國共有出口企業中國小型和微型企業188000家,占出口企業總數的73%,主要集中外國工人。據統計,在2011年出口的小型和微型企業在北京,在北京的5000多名出口企業占總數的小型和微型企業,到2011年達到2.75美元億美元的出口80%以上,解決就業,促進出口和刺激經濟增長,社會穩定和安全起到了積極的作用。
另一方面,外貿進出口總額的比重也越來越大。小型和微型企業在對外貿易額的比例不斷增加,出口,出口總額的60%以上,例如,小型和微型企業在2010年的出口占全部出口的72%,在2011年,小微出口企業創造了65%的百分比。從當地政府的外貿數據也可以看到小型和微型企業在對外貿易中的增長不斷增長的比例,例如,從2012年1-6月,紹興縣小型和微型企業的出口實績的2729,同比增長212家,出口增加至1.81十億美元,平均增長率為2.3%,占全縣出口總額的38.3%。
政府外貿企業的到小微政策支持的逐漸增多。 2012年9月12日,國務院總理溫家寶主持召開國務院常務會議,討論“外貿穩定增長的若干意見”確定的8項政策措施支持外貿發展的促進,會議指出,擴大融資規模,降低融資成本,支持商業銀行向小型和微型企業,努力擴大貿易融資,提高出口企業對符合條件的貸款。 2012年9月16日,國務院頒布了“國務院辦公廳關于促進外貿穩定增長的若干意見”(國辦發[2012] 49號),國務院的八項措施進行了細化。隨后,該區還貫徹落實國務院頒布的若干意見促進外貿“穩增長”的實施文件,根據外貿從外交政策的不同特點,以支持小型和微型企業發展。
其次,小型和微型企業發展對外貿易存在的問題
自2008年金融危機以來,在國際市場和國際競爭的需求萎縮的雙重壓力下,小型和微型企業規模小,弱,抗風險能力和其他因素的影響,受災較為嚴重,以開拓國際市場面臨更大的壓力,生存和發展更加困難。
(A)訂單的風險增加
由于在歐洲和美國的債務危機,現在國外客戶往往延長信貸期,小微企業獨自承擔風險并沒有開始,只能眼睜睜地錯過了訂單。主要出口機電有限公司重慶勁森普爾等業務通用發電機組的主要出口地區,包括印度,柬埔寨,非洲等國家和地區,今年以來,企業開工率60%,同比減少3至40%。有沒有人曾經的非洲買家在港口拒絕提貨,也不退回或轉賣,最后50,000美元至17,000美元的商品,由海關在拍賣便宜。十單生意只要運行一個單一的,利潤都沒有了。對于風險問題,考慮了很多小型和微型企業,為了不承擔一個單一的運行風險,寧愿不采取國外訂單。
(二)融資困難
大型金融機構的貸款融資目前的高門檻,嚴要求,融資擔保體系不健全,加上小型和微型企業的存在是小,抗風險能力弱,財務管理不規范,貸款管理難度大等不足之處和金融機構放貸審慎政策沖突,造成了大量的小型和微型企業的發展前景良好,是很難獲得銀行信貸支持和其他金融機構往往面臨著資金鏈斷裂的窘境,嚴重財政困難。
(三)勞動力成本上升
近年來,隨著頻繁的“用工荒”的現象,招工困難,勞動力昂貴,很難留人已成為影響和制約企業在沿海經濟發達地區的經濟和社會發展,在全國各地,特別是工人的流動性增加生存,發展和關鍵因素的重要因素。大多數小型和微型企業是勞動力密集型企業,是一個惡劣的工作條件,工作時間長,勞動強度大,員工福利和保障措施不到位等問題,導致企業招工難,留人更難。企業無奈之下,你只能通過招聘,提高福利的人支付,因此,勞動力成本不斷增加,幾年前這樣,外國公司會羨慕人口紅利消失。
(四)出口信用保險率很低
出口信用保險是世界貿易組織(WTO)規則允許的促進外貿和經濟發展的有效工具,也是國際慣例,可以有效地幫助企業開拓國際市場的過程中規避外匯風險,增加貿易機會和擴大融資渠道,跟蹤買方信息。投保后,一旦發生買方破產,無力償債,拖欠,拒收貨物和其他商業風險,買方國家爆發戰爭,動亂,貿易管制,外匯管制及其他政治風險,公司收到的賠償金額出口90%的損失。外貿企業大多是小型和微型散兵游勇,只有國家,在危機首先影響了貿易,出口信用保險,以保護小型和微型企業,以避免外國的交易對手風險,拖動帳戶債務賴賬。但恰恰是最脆弱的小型和微型企業的危機保險費率一直很低。例如,在上海,目前有大約15,000小微上海出口企業,但短期出口信用保險的參保積極性少數,承保覆蓋率低。撥備覆蓋率低,一方面是企業的意識還比較薄弱,其他部分業務,高風險溢價率在海外市場的高,低風險地區是沒有必要買。
三,多維支持小型和微型企業發展外貿
(一)貫徹執行國家政策
為貫徹落實國務院常務會議“關于促進外貿穩定增長的若干意見”的精神,小微企業出口信用保險覆蓋面,引導幫助小微出口企業規避風險,支持小微出口企業開拓國際市場,地方應出臺貫徹落實國家政策的具體措施,促進對外貿易的發展,小型和微型企業。例如,北京市商務委員會和中國出口信用保險公司簽署了“小型和微型企業在北京(2011年出口額1,000,000元(含)以下)出口信用保險的保險協議”,根據該協議,北京2011年出口規模在100萬美元(含)或以下,并在2012年外貿出口業績的小型和微型企業的短期出口信用保險的保險。義烏市出臺了“市場經營戶和小微信用保險支持外貿公司聯動保護方案”,規定在2012年7月,直到2012年年底,義烏市378合格的外貿流通企業,小型和微型保險出口信用保險,市級財政“全薪。”黑龍江省2012年10月,商務部,財政部和中國信保長春辦事處決定啟動“百小微企業出口信用保險支持計劃”,為全省去年,海關出口數據3000000美元重點行業, 100小微出口企業,由政府全額支付溢價的出口潛力。
(二)加強對小微外貿企業的金融支持
由于歐洲債務危機持續發酵和全球經濟增長乏力,中國的外貿形勢依然嚴峻,金融機構必須加強小微外貿企業的金融支持。介紹了一些金融機構對小型和微型企業,行業門檻低,成本低保險和量身定制的一攬子金融解決方案,可以幫助提高中小企業開拓國際市場的信心和能力,培育新的增長點,外貿。為了促進外貿增長方式,金融機構已經采取了一些積極措施,如中信保險上海公司在2011年出口300萬美元以下的小型和微型企業提出了出口信用保險政策,同時降低了保險門檻,簡化保險流程。中信銀行保險公司和江蘇合格的近400家小型和微型企業提供1億美元的出口保險,為中小外貿企業提供為期三年的10億元人民幣的意向融資支持。
(三)設立專項資金,支持小微外貿企業
2012年6月修訂的“中小企業發展專項資金管理辦法”類型的企業從原來的一個大的變化是支持中型和小型企業兩大類,分為中型,小型和微型企業三大類,這意味著抵抗能力差許多風險微型企業將成為專項資金扶持的重點。也開始在外貿企業小型和微型專項扶持資金,例如,根據最新出臺的“外貿企業在寧波市小微金融援助資金使用規范(試行)”,支持小型和微型企業發展外貿出口退稅賬戶托管貸款,出口融資和信用保險政策動產抵押融資。 2012年7月1日起,符合條件的寧波小微金融服務,外貿企業提供融資,擔保,動產質押監管服務和壞賬,他們的實際壞賬給予一定比例承擔損失補償外貿小微托管帳戶的企業開展出口退稅貼息貸款給予開支,給予不超過30%,單公司接受低于20萬元的利息補貼。但是,像這樣專門為寧波外貿小微企業專項資金仍是罕見的,我希望當地政府可以把小微專業外貿企業,畢竟,小型和微型企業和國內貿易還是非常大的差異,需要區別的支持。
(四)提供行政服務,以方便海關有針對性
要支持中小微外貿企業的健康發展,以應對全球經濟放緩和歐洲債務危機的不利影響,應促進海關有針對性的改進海關監管和服務,從政策的角度允許的范圍內最大的行政服務限制,降低小微企業進出口通關成本,促進對外貿易的發展,小型和微型企業。例如廣東海關廣東分署領導共同推出了支持中小微企業的進口和出口的八項措施,包括關稅,促進電子支付系統應用,鼓勵中小微企業使用電子支付關稅,報關成本節約型企業,促進收集和便利化,實施進出口商品預審價,預歸類,預確定原產地,鼓勵符合條件的中小微企業選擇“屬地申報,口岸驗放”通關模式完全開放式分類通關改革,鼓勵更多合格的企業享受“低風險快速放行”的通關便利,對小微加工貿易企業開展對外經貿,海關,企業三方網絡管理,方便企業合同審批,備案手續;口岸海關設立中小微企業的辦事窗口,提供“24小時預約通關”服務。這八項措施,為中小微廣東省進口和出口各方面的進口和出口企業,有針對性地簡化通關流程,節約企業通關時間和成本,并允許更多的符合條件的企業可享受“低風險快速放行“通關便利。

 

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英国代写_数学代写_c++/c代写_留学生代写怎么查出来?