First, the rise of small and micro enterprises and development of foreign trade
On the one hand, the large number of small and micro foreign trade enterprises. Over the past three decades the development of small and micro enterprises in our country very quickly, a huge number. According to China International Cooperation Association of SMEs "issued by China and healthy development of small and medium micro enterprises report (2012)," the end of 2011, the national industrial and commercial registration is indeed enterprise 12,531,000, 37,565,000 individual businesses, including small and medium enterprises and micro enterprises accounted for 99.7% of the total. A total national export enterprises small and micro enterprises 188000, China accounted for 73% of the total number of export enterprises, concentrated mostly foreign workers. According to statistics, in 2011 exports of small and micro enterprises in Beijing more than 5,000 export enterprises in Beijing accounted for over 80% of the total number of small and micro enterprises in 2011 to achieve exports of $ 2.75 billion, in solving the employment, promotion of exports and stimulate economic growth and security social stability has played a positive role.
The other hand, the proportion of foreign trade volume is growing. Small and micro enterprises in foreign trade turnover in the proportion is increasing, provided export more than 60% of total exports, for example, exports of small and micro enterprises in 2010 accounted for 72% of all exports in 2011, exports of small and micro enterprises to create Percentage of 65%. Foreign trade data from the local government can also see the growth of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade growing out of proportion, for example, from January to June 2012, Shaoxing County, export performance of small and micro enterprises 2729, an increase of 212 home, exports increased to $ 1.81 billion, with an average growth rate of 2.3 percent, the county accounted for 38.3% of total exports.
Government foreign trade enterprises to small micro-policy support is gradually increasing. September 12, 2012, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired a State Council executive meeting to discuss "the steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of opinions" to determine the eight policy measures to support the development of foreign trade, the meeting noted that the expansion of the scale of financing, reduce financing costs, support commercial banks to small and micro enterprises efforts to expand trade financing, increasing export enterprises that meet the requirements of the loan. September 16, 2012 the State Council issued the "State Council on promoting the steady growth of foreign trade a number of observations (Guo Ban Fa  No. 49)", on the State Department's eight measures were refined. Subsequently, the district also implement the State Council issued the "steady growth of foreign trade on the promotion of a number of views," the implementation of the document, according to the different characteristics of foreign trade over from foreign policy to support small and micro enterprise development.
Second, the development of small and micro enterprises in foreign trade problems
Since the 2008 financial crisis, shrinking demand in the international market and international competition under the dual pressure, small and micro enterprises as small scale, weak anti-risk ability and other factors, affected more severely, to explore the international market is facing greater pressure, survival and development more difficult.
(A) orders increased risk
As the debt crisis in Europe and America, and now foreign customers often extended credit period, small and micro enterprises bear the risk alone does not start, can only stand and missed orders. Electrical Co., Ltd. Chongqing Jin Sen Poer such business mainly export General Generator main export regions including India, Cambodia, Africa and other countries and regions, this year, enterprises operating rate was 60%, representing a decrease of three to 40%. Has anyone ever refused to take delivery at the port of African buyers, nor with returned or resold, the last 50,000 dollars to 17,000 U.S. dollars of goods by customs cheap at auction. Ten single business to run as long as a single one, profits all gone. For risk issues to consider, a lot of small and micro enterprises in order not to bear a single run risks, would prefer not to take foreign orders.
(Two) financing difficulties
Large financial institutions loan financing current high threshold, strict requirements, financing guarantee system is not perfect, coupled with the presence of small and micro enterprises is small, weak anti-risk ability, financial management is not standardized, loan management is difficult and other deficiencies, and financial institutions to lend prudential policy conflicts, resulting in a lot of good prospects for the development of small and micro enterprises is difficult to obtain bank credit support and other financial institutions are often faced with the dilemma of funding strand breaks, was in serious financial difficulties.
(Three) increased labor costs
In recent years, with the economic and social development and the increased mobility of workers across the country especially in economically developed coastal areas of frequent "labor shortage" phenomenon, recruitment difficulties, labor expensive, hard to keep people have become affected and constrained enterprises to survive, important factor in the development and critical factor. Most small and micro enterprises are labor-intensive enterprises, there is a poor working conditions, long working hours, labor-intensive, employee benefits and safeguards are not in place and other issues, leading to business recruitment difficulties, to keep people harder. Corporate desperation, you can only pay through recruitment, improved benefits to people, so that labor costs continue to increase, a few years ago so that foreign companies would envy demographic dividend vanished.
(Four) export credit insurance rate is very low
Export credit insurance is a World Trade Organization (WTO) rules allow for the promotion of foreign trade and economic development of effective tools, but also the international practice, can help companies in the process of developing international market effectively avoid foreign exchange risks, increasing trade opportunities and expand financing channel to track the buyer information. After the insured, in the event the buyer bankruptcy, insolvency, arrears, reject the goods and other business risks, the buyer country outbreak of war, unrest, trade controls, exchange controls and other political risks, companies receive up to the amount of compensation for the loss of exports to 90 %. Foreign trade enterprises mostly small and micro stragglers, the state alone, in the first of the crisis affected trade, export credit insurance to protect small and micro enterprises to avoid foreign counterparty risks dragging account debts deadbeat. But it is precisely the most vulnerable to crisis insurance rates for small and micro enterprises has always been very low. In Shanghai, for example, currently there are about 15,000 small micro Shanghai export enterprises, but short-term export credit insurance insurance initiative of few, underwriting coverage is low. Coverage ratio is low, on the one hand is the enterprise awareness is still relatively weak, the other part of the business that the high risk premium rates higher in overseas markets, low risk areas is not necessary to buy.
Third, the development of small and micro enterprises multidimensional support foreign trade
(A) implement the national policy
To implement the State Council executive meeting "on the promotion of foreign trade steady growth in number of opinions" spirit of small and micro enterprises export credit insurance coverage, and guide to help small and micro export enterprises to avoid risks, to support small and micro export enterprises to explore the international market, local should be introduced to implement the State policy specific measures to promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example, the Beijing Municipal Commerce Commission and the China Export & Credit Insurance Corporation signed a "small and micro enterprises in Beijing (2011 Exports $ 1,000,000 (including) the following) the insurance of export credit insurance agreement," according to the agreement, Beijing for the 2011 annual export scale In the $ 1 million (including) or less, and in 2012 foreign trade export performance for the insurance of small and micro enterprises short-term export credit insurance. Yiwu City, introduced the "market dealers and small micro-credit insurance foreign trade companies to support linkage protection program", provides in July 2012 until the end of 2012, Yiwu 378 qualifying foreign trade circulation enterprises, small and micro insurance export credit insurance, the municipal finance "full pay." October 2012, Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Commerce, Department of Finance and the China Credit Insurance Changchun Office decided to start "one hundred small and micro enterprises export credit insurance support scheme" for the province last year, customs export data $ 3,000,000 following key industries, export potential of 100 small micro-export enterprises, the premium paid in full by the government.
(Two) to strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises
As the European debt crisis continue to simmer and weak global economic growth, China's foreign trade situation is still grim, financial institutions must strengthen the small and micro financial support for foreign trade enterprises. Introduced a number of financial institutions for small and micro enterprises, low trade barriers, low-cost insurance and tailor-made package of financial solutions that can help to improve SMEs explore international market confidence and ability to cultivate new growth points of foreign trade. To promote foreign trade growth, financial institutions have taken a number of positive measures, such as CITIC Insurance Company of Shanghai in 2011 exports of $ 3 million below the small and micro enterprises presented export credit insurance policies, while reducing the insurance threshold and simplify insurance processes. CITIC Bank Insurance Company and Jiangsu were qualified nearly 400 small and micro enterprises to provide $ 1 billion in export insurance for small and medium sized foreign trade enterprises to provide three-year 10 billion yuan of intent financing support.
(Three) set up to support small and micro foreign trade enterprises special funds
June 2012 revised "SME development funds management approach" a big change from the original type of enterprise is to support medium-sized and small businesses two categories, into medium-sized, small and micro-enterprises three categories, which means poor ability to resist risks many micro-enterprises will be the focus of special funds to support. Also began to set over the foreign trade enterprises of small and micro special support funds, for example, according to the latest introduction of the "foreign trade enterprises in Ningbo City, a small micro-finance assistance funds use practices (Trial)", to support small and micro enterprises to develop foreign trade export tax rebate accounts managed loans, export financing and credit insurance policies chattel mortgage financing. From 1 July 2012 onwards, in line with the conditions of Ningbo small micro-finance services to foreign trade enterprises to provide financing, guarantees, chattel mortgage regulatory services and bad debts, to give a certain percentage of their actual bad debt bear the loss compensation, foreign trade of small micro- Managed Accounts enterprises to develop export tax rebate interest loans given to expenditure incurred, give no more than 30% and single companies received less than 20 million in interest subsidies. But like so specifically for small and micro Ningbo foreign trade enterprises of special funds is still rare, I hope the local government can treat small micro specialized foreign trade enterprise, after all, small and micro enterprises and domestic trade is still very large differences, the need for differentiated support.
(Four) to provide administrative services to facilitate customs targeted
To support the healthy development of small and medium micro foreign trade enterprises to cope with sluggish world economy and the European debt crisis adversely affected, shall facilitate customs administrative services targeted at improving customs supervision and services from the perspective of the policy to the extent permitted maximum limits to reduce the small micro-enterprise import and export customs clearance costs, and promote the development of small and micro enterprises of foreign trade. For example Guangdong Customs Guangdong Branch led jointly launched to support small and medium micro enterprises import and export eight measures, including the promotion of customs duties applied electronic payment systems to encourage small and medium micro enterprises to use electronic payment of customs duties, customs clearance and cost-saving enterprise; promote the collection and facilitation, implementation of import and export commodities pre-price, pre-classified, pre-determination of origin; encourage qualified small and medium micro enterprises to choose the "territorial declaration, port clearance" clearance mode; fully open classification clearance reform, to encourage more qualified enterprises to enjoy the "low-risk quick release" clearance facilitation; pair of small micro processing trade enterprises to carry out foreign trade, customs, enterprise tripartite network management, to facilitate enterprises for contract approval, filing procedures; Customs port set up for small and medium micro enterprises work window, provide a "24-hour reservation clearance" services. This eight measures for small and medium micro Guangdong import and export of all aspects of import and export enterprises, targeted to simplify customs clearance process, saving companies the operating hours and cost, and allow more qualified enterprises can enjoy the "low-risk quick release "clearance facilitation.
政府外貿企業的到小微政策支持的逐漸增多。 2012年9月12日，國務院總理溫家寶主持召開國務院常務會議，討論“外貿穩定增長的若干意見”確定的8項政策措施支持外貿發展的促進，會議指出，擴大融資規模，降低融資成本，支持商業銀行向小型和微型企業，努力擴大貿易融資，提高出口企業對符合條件的貸款。 2012年9月16日，國務院頒布了“國務院辦公廳關于促進外貿穩定增長的若干意見”（國辦發 49號），國務院的八項措施進行了細化。隨后，該區還貫徹落實國務院頒布的若干意見促進外貿“穩增長”的實施文件，根據外貿從外交政策的不同特點，以支持小型和微型企業發展。