澳洲essay代寫|English Teaching

發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08
Discuss the practice of English teaching, in terms of both language and literature, has undergone dramatic changes since the vernacular origins of Old English in Anglo-Saxon Britain.
The practice of English teaching, in terms of both language and literature, has undergone dramatic changes since the vernacular origins of Old English in Anglo-Saxon Britain.  Considering the fact that primary education, or elementary education as it was referred to in the nineteenth century, was not compulsory until 1880, it is particularly interesting to note the rapid evolution of English teaching between the end of the nineteenth century and the end of the twentieth century.  The twentieth century itself was characterised by an extreme level of social and political upheaval which necessarily exerted an influence not only on the day-to-day use of the English language but also on the way in which it was taught in the primary-school classroom. 
Until the end of the nineteenth century, education in general was reserved for a privileged few and the study of English was deemed a lesser academic pursuit than the study of the Latin and Greek classics.  However, according to Mercer and Swann, the influence of the Industrial Revolution and the huge economic advancements it gave rise to placed an emphasis on the need for “more widespread literacy and high levels of literacy” (Mercer & Swann 1996:168) among the British population.  Nevertheless, due to the hierarchical nature of Victorian society, language served as a means by which class boundaries could be rigidly defined and maintained.  This is evident in the literary works of many nineteenth-century writers such as Dickens who often employed different registers to inform the reader of the social status of his characters.  Indeed, the confusion and controversy that surrounded the teaching of English at the end of the nineteenth century regarding what should be taught to whom, and by what methods, directly concerned the changing socio-political fabric of British society.  As education became available to more and more people and the establishment of English as a subject became more respected, it became increasingly evident that widespread reform was required.
Despite the fact that, by the latter part of the nineteenth century, the necessity of teaching English in primary schools was generally accepted, there were many disagreements regarding its purpose.  While the prevailing fear in the higher echelons of society was that universal literacy would lead to discontent among the working classes and consequent rebellion, there were others who believed education “a means of social and economic advancement” and “a means of breaking down the old class barriers” (Mercer & Swann 1996:168).  While the political debate raged on, those children who attended primary school were often the recipients of an unimaginative curriculum which, nevertheless, increased the level of basic literacy for a much greater proportion of the population.  The teaching of reading was often conducted by reading around the classroom and learning pieces of prose by rote.  For some pupils, learning to read meant little more than a memorisation task, while other pupils benefited from the highly structured exercise of repetition and correction.  In contrast to the focus on personal development and imagination that characterised the teaching of English a century later, children were issued with “graded readers” (Mercer & Swann 1996:177) that were of a didactic, moralistic nature and were designed as much to instil primary-school children with core Victorian values as they were to teach them to read.  There was very little emphasis on the child as an individual, and a considerable amount of concentration on the child as a member of a society with firmly established ideologies.  This was particularly apparent in the way in which Celtic languages were dismissed as inferior.  As Mercer and Swann highlight, the suppression of Welsh and Irish and Scottish Gaelic in favour of English “undoubtedly led to greater standardization in the English language” (Mercer & Swann 1996:173) which, in turn, led to the suppression of Welsh, Irish, and Scottish cultures.  While this clearly paved the way for the standardisation of the curriculum that took place in the 1980s and extended the consideration of English as a scholarly subject worthy of respect, it raised many questions about the imperialistic activity of imposing the English language and culture on all primary-school children.  As the British Empire and the values it represented began to disintegrate, therefore, English as a taught subject became a significant way to unify the country.
The importance of language in the establishment of national identity cannot be underestimated.  Throughout history, the standardisation of national languages has led to greater national unity, while one of the main aims during the colonial period was to impose the coloniser’s language on the subjugated people to weaken their sense of cultural and national selfhood.  Following the mass destruction and political upheaval of the First World War, then, the literature and language of Britain came to the fore as the government attempted to reinstate a sense of national unity.  The extreme changes occurring in British society as a result of the First World War, the steady disintegration of some class and gender barriers as more children attended school and women won the right to vote, and a general climate of political upheaval, led to the influential publishing of the Newbolt Report by the Board of Education in 1921.  For the first time in British history, the study of English literature began to replace that of the Latin and Greek classics as the significance of the Ancient World to modern British society after the war they believed was ‘the war to end all wars’ was diminishing.  While the replacement of classical texts for English literary texts was resisted by many, the Report advocated their introduction at all levels of education including primary-school level thereby setting the stage for the development of English as a major subject of study later in the century.  Moreover, the teaching of basic literacy skills in primary schools began to develop considerably as speaking and listening skills were added to the already established reading and writing skills.  In contrast to the dismissal of Celtic languages and regional dialects that prevailed at the end of the nineteenth century, the        Newbolt  Report placed greater emphasis on local variations in language use and their importance within the child’s educational framework.  This was coupled with the Report’s recommendation that the teaching of language should seek to eliminate the conflation of language with class and further standardise the use of the English language in both speech and writing.  This process of standardisation extended to the teaching of handwriting, ‘correct’ pronunciation, and the attainment of certain levels in all of the literacy skills. 
Over the next few decades, the practice of English language teaching in British primary schools remained focussed on the teaching of basic literacy skills,  while the child and his/her individuality and personal development became increasingly important.  At a higher level, the study of English literature was gaining considerable prestige at universities as critics such as F. R. Leavis set about establishing a canon of English literary texts to rival the Latin and Greek classics that had long occupied a prestigious place in British education.  It was not until the century’s second most influential government report on education, the Bullock Report, was published in 1975 under the control of Margaret Thatcher that the practice of English teaching underwent another stage of evolution.  While the Report’s main purpose was to reverse what was considered to be a decline in literacy standards and to impose new or modified regulations on the teaching of English, according to Mercer and Swann it “found no evidence for falling standards in literacy” (Mercer & Swann 1996:181).  Its recommendations, therefore, highlight the socio-political climate of the late 1970s and early 1980s in that it places a great emphasis on individual progress and success and the significance of English for children’s continuation into employment or university.  Its two main recommendations were the development of a “language programme from preschool to school leaving age” and the establishment of reading “as an integral part of the language curriculum” (Mercer & Swann 1996:181).  While the Bullock Report concerned itself with the maintenance of standards, the influence of the Dartmouth Conference a few years prior to the Report’s publication was still highly influential as it combined language practice with literary creativity by encouraging creative writing in primary school.  In contrast to the confused state of British primary-school teaching of English a century before, the establishment of a National Curriculum based on the four fundamental aspects of literacy: reading, writing, listening and speaking in the 1980s brought the standardisation process to full maturity.  In the same way as Celtic languages suffered at the end of the nineteenth century, the concentration on Standard English as the norm in the classroom in the 1980s and early 1990s gave rise to the fear that children who spoke non-standard varieties of English in the home were losing a part of their cultural identity.  As Mercer and Swann report, however, many teachers “have tried to educate children about their own language use”, thereby widening the child’s linguistic and cultural sensibility and education.             
It is evident that the changes that have taken place in the teaching of English in British primary schools between the end of the nineteenth century and the end of the twentieth century reflect the changes that have taken place in the social, political and cultural fabric of British society.  As the boundaries between classes became less of a barrier to education and Latin and Greek texts were slowly replaced with English texts, the practice of English language and literature teaching developed to an ever greater degree.  Whereas the main function of English teaching in primary schools at the beginning of the twentieth century was to teach the basic skills of reading and writing, this had extended by the end of the century to include the study of literature, creative writing, speaking and listening skills, an understanding of the socio-cultural aspects of the English language, and an appreciation of the diversity of language in general.   
Bibliography
Mercer, N and Swann, J (1996) Learning English: Development and Diversity (English Language: Past, Present and Future, London: Routledge in association with The Open University).

討論英語教學的實踐,在語言和文學兩個方面,已經發生了戲劇性的變化,因為在盎格魯撒克遜英國古英語白話起源。
英語教學的實踐,在語言和文學兩個方面,已經發生了巨大變化,在英國盎格魯 - 撒克遜白話起源以來的古英語。考慮到一個事實,即小學教育,小學教育,因為它在19世紀被稱為,是不是強制性的,直到1880年,它是特別值得注意的十九世紀的結束和結束的英語教學之間的快速發展二十世紀。二十世紀本身的特點是一個極端的水平必然產生的社會和政治動蕩不僅對每天日常使用的英語,但還的方式,它是教小學的教室。
直到年底的19世紀,教育一般被保留為少數特權者和學英語被視為一個鮮為人知的學術追求比拉丁文和希臘文的經典研究。然而,根據美世和斯旺,工業革命的影響和巨大的經濟進步,它給人們帶​​來的重點放在需要“更廣泛的知識和較高的文化水平”(默瑟斯旺1996:168)之間的英國人口。不過,由于維多利亞社會的分層特性,語言階級界限可以嚴格定義和維護的一種手段。在文學作品中的許多19世紀作家狄更斯等人往往采用了不同的寄存器來告知讀者,他筆下的人物的社會地位,這是顯而易見的。事實上,混亂和爭議包圍的英語教學應該教什么人在十九世紀結束,以及通過什么方法,直接涉及英國社會的不斷變化的社會經濟政治結構。由于教育成為越來越多的人,并建立了英語作為一門學科成為更受尊敬,它變得越來越明顯,需要廣泛的改革。
盡管事實證明,由十九世紀的后半部,在小學英語教學的必要性,被普遍接受的,有許多分歧,就其目的。雖然目前在較高的上流社會的恐懼,普及識字,會導致工人階級的不滿和隨之而來的叛亂,還有其他人誰相信教育“的社會和經濟發展的一種手段”和“意味著打破舊的階級障礙“(默瑟斯旺1996:168)。雖然政治論戰誰參加小學,這些孩子往往是一個缺乏想象力的課程,但水平不斷提高,基本素養的人口比例更大的收件人。在教室里讀書和學習死記硬背件散文閱讀教學中經常進行。對于一些學生,學習閱讀意味著多一點的背誦任務,從高度結構化的工作重復和修正,而其他學生受益。在注重個人發展和想象力,一個世紀以后的英語教學特點相反,孩子們發出“分級讀物”(默瑟斯旺1996:177)說教,說教性質,被設計成多灌輸小學的孩子與核心維多利亞值,因為他們要教他們讀書。有很少強調對孩子作為一個個體,并集中了相當數量的孩子作為一個社會成員牢固確立的意識形態。這尤為明顯凱爾特語的方式,被斥為劣質。 Mercer和斯旺的亮點,無疑是導致更大的標準化英語“(默瑟斯旺1996:173),這反過來又導致抑制威爾士語,威爾士,愛爾蘭和蘇格蘭的蓋爾英語贊成”抑制愛爾蘭,蘇格蘭文化。雖然這顯然發生在20世紀80年代,作為一個學術課題,值得尊重,并延長審議英語課程的標準化鋪平了道路,提出了許多問題,關于帝國主義的活動,對英語語言和文化的所有主失學兒童。作為大英帝國和它代表的價值觀開始解體,因此,英語作為授課的主題成為統一國家的一個重要途徑。
語言的重要性,在建立國家認同不能低估。縱觀歷史,民族語言的標準化,導致更大的民族團結,而在殖民時期的主要目標之一是殖民者的語言強加給征服的人,以削弱他們的文化和民族意義上的個性。第一次世界大戰大規模殺傷性政治動蕩之后,那么,英國的文學和語言走到了臺前,政府試圖恢復民族團​​結感。英國社會作為第一次世界大戰的結果發生的極端變化,穩步解體,一些階級和性別障礙,隨著越來越多的兒童上學和婦女贏得投票權,而一般的氣候政治動蕩,導致有影響力的教育委員會于1921年出版的Newbolt報告。在英國歷史上是第一次,開始取代英語文學研究古代世界現代英國社會的意義,拉丁文和希臘文的經典之作,戰爭結束后,他們認為是“戰爭結束所有的戰爭”削弱。而更換遭到許多英語文學作品的經典文本,報告主張他們的介紹,各級教育,包括小學階段英語作為一個重要課題的研究,后來在本世紀的發展階段。此外,小學的教學基本的識字能力開始發展相當的口語和聽力技能被添加到已經建立的閱讀和寫作能力。解雇的凱爾特語和方言,盛行于十九世紀的結束,的Newbolt報告更加注重孩子的教育框架內的本地語言使用中的變化,其重要性。這是該報告的建議,再加上語言教學中應設法消除語言類混為一談,進一步規范使用英語的語音和文字。這個過程的標準化擴展到手寫的教學,“正確”的發音,并在所有的識字技能達到一定的水平。
在接下來的幾十年里,在英國小學的英語教學實踐中仍然集中在基本的讀寫技能的教學,孩子和他/她的個性和個人發展而變得越來越重要。在較高的水平,英語文學研究取得了相當大的威信,批評如FR利維斯著手建立一個佳能的英語文學作品分庭抗禮的拉丁文和希臘文的經典,在英國教育長期占據了一個著名的地方大學。它不是直到本世紀的第二個最有影響力的政府工作報告對教育,布洛克的報告,發表在1975年撒切爾夫人的控制下,英語教學的實踐經歷另一個階段的演變。雖然該報告的主要目的是,以扭轉什么,考慮到會掃盲標準的下降和對英語教學的施加新的或修改的法規,根據美世和斯旺它“發現識字標準下降沒有證據”(美世&斯旺1996:181)。它的建議,因此,20世紀70年代末和80年代初的地方在于它很重視個人的進步和成功,并延續到就業或大學兒童英語的意義突出的社會政治環境。它的兩個主要建議是從學前班到離校年齡“讀”語言課程“(默瑟斯旺1996:181)的一個組成部分,并建立一個”語言程序的發展。雖然布洛克報告關注與維護標準,達特茅斯會議報告出版前幾年的影響仍然是非常有影響力的,因為它鼓勵中小學生創意寫作與文學創作結合語言實踐。在一個世紀前英國小學英語教學的混亂狀態相比,建立的國家課程的基礎上識字的四個基本方面:閱讀,寫作,聽力和口語在20世紀80年代帶來了完全成熟的標準化進程。在凱爾特語族遭受同樣的方式在19世紀結束時,濃度對標準英語的規范,在20世紀80年代和90年代初在課堂上給人們帶來的恐懼,孩子們誰的英語講非標準品種家里失去了自己的文化身份的一部分。然而,美世和斯旺報告的,許多教師都試過來教育孩子們自己的語言使用“,從而拓寬孩子的語言和文化的感受力和教育。
很明顯,結束之間的十九世紀和二十世紀的結束在英國的小學英語教學中已經發生的變化,反映了英國的社會,政治和文化結構已經發生了變化,社會。由于類之間的界限變得不那么教育的一道屏障,并慢慢取代拉丁文和希臘文的文本與英文文本,英語語言文學教學的實踐,發展程度越來越大。而在二十世紀開始在小學英語教學的主要功能是教閱讀和寫作的基本技能,這延長了本世紀末,包括文獻研究,創意寫作,口語和聽力技能,了解社會文化方面的英語,和一般的語言的多樣性升值。
參考書目
美世,N和斯旺,J(1996)英語學習:發展和多樣性(英語:過去,現在和未來,倫敦:公開大學與ROUTLEDGE)。

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