Critical thinking-批判性思維與決策者-general thinkin

發布時間:2020-05-28 23:08

Critical thinking is a part of general thinking process. During the thinking process ideas, assumptions, hypotheses, beliefs and premises are born as the result of working out psychological and biological reactions. Critical thinking consists of three important steps or stages. These stages are: becoming aware that certain assumption exists, making this assumption explicit and final steps are making sure in its accuracy. So, critical thinking assumes critical evaluation of any assumptions, which appear during our thinking process. In order to evaluate them critically, we ask ourselves several questions. Is this assumption true? Are there any special conditions, which make it true? Are there any special conditions, which make it false?
There are some general mistakes concerning critical thinking. Usually we tend to treat word “critical” negatively. We believe that critical evaluation brings negative effect trying to destroy any assumptions finding only their counterparts and blunders. In reality critical thinking is rather positive process, which creates more realistic perspective. Critical thinking is a very important process, because it includes realistic evaluations of unchecked facts and assumptions. Very often unchecked facts or information lead to wrong decisions and poor consequences. In personal communication and close interactions critical thinking can help to understand the position of other people and imagine what consequences can have our actions not only for them, but for us also.
Problem solving process includes:
- setting up the problem;
- defining negative sides of the problem, main difficulties and limitations;
- defining positive sides of the problem, what can be used in order to resolve it;
- finding new ideas, brainstorming, etc, aiming to escape negative sides and use positive ones;
- choosing the best variant most suitable for the problem resolved, building a ranking list of solutions, starting from the most effective ones.
There are several forces which influence the process of decision making. These forces can be divided into two major groups. The first group includes objective forces, which can not be influenced by the problem solver. These forces include the problem to be solved such as costs, risks, losses; its positive sides and limitations. Another type of forces consists of subjective forces, which are influenced by the personality of problem solver, his skills, attitude to the problem and his or her sensory input.
三個主要工具團隊決策包括:腦力激蕩,分組和multivoting親和力。腦力激蕩法通常被稱為工具,產生許多選項定位到一個承擔特定的目的。主要的目標是產生這一工具使用的集體思維幾點意見。Multivoting讓選擇最合適的選擇從所有的命題。這個工具是適合選擇最為合適的選擇余地從長串的不同的想法。親和力分組形成群體或類別包括選項中,的人的所有想法的頭腦風暴。
倫理學必須直接所有人類的行為和決定,包括批判性思維和決策造成的。這意味著我們必須考慮決策時的倫理規范。能勝任能力認識到一個與倫理有關的問題要伴隨著所有的決策過程。我們應該意識到,在決策我們可以滿足所謂的道德困境的情況——沒有一個明確的答復。在這種情況下這個決定應該意識到做錯了事,他們可能的后果。重要的是要記住:倫理和道德價值觀應被視為人類最大的成就和應該時刻牢記決策時。
有幾種方法可以估計結果我們的決定。我們可以估算經濟價值,可以給直接和間接的價值觀。直接價值能夠貨幣和間接測量值可由不是物質的東西,還帶來利潤,解決問題或組織。間接價值可能包括正面或負面影響的聲譽,標簽價格、商譽等。
決策者應該考慮一下這種可能性的不良結果。決策過程通常意味著風險和之間選擇幾個方面。選錯了風險的觀點或一個錯誤的策略總是伴隨著的任何一個環節的決策。有必要考慮和估計可能出現的風險與壞的結果所決定的。
這是不可能的完美的預測100%的所有細微差別當作出這個決定的。選擇替代,決策者必須建立一些部分假設預測和預報。錯誤或變化情況進行了預測信息的不同的結果。更精確的數據和信息做出決定時,知道的越少,可能發生的意外事故概率。在當時的情況下當沒有可能跳過不確定數據或預測,其必要的百分比時打電話或有事項選擇替代。
關鍵的或評價思想成為一個完美的工具能做出正確的決定。它既可以用于團體或個人決策。可用于該行業的專業經理以及承擔選了很多的決定和他們的評價和對情況的了解能帶來很多好處,防止不良的失落。
Three main tools of team decision making include: brainstorming, affinity grouping and multivoting. Brainstorming is usually described as a tool which assumes generating many options to one specific purpose. The main goal of this tool is to generate several ideas using collective mind. Multivoting lets to choose the most suitable options from all propositions. This tool is suitable for choosing the most preferable options from the long list of different ideas. Affinity grouping includes forming groups or categories of options from all the ideas achieved during the brain storming.
Ethics must direct all human actions and decisions, including critical thinking and decisions making. It means that we must always take into account ethical norms when making decision. Competence as the ability to recognize an ethical issue should accompany all the decision making processes. We should be aware that during decision making we can meet so called moral dilemmas – the situations which don’t have one definite answer. In these situations the decision should be made being aware about possible wrongdoings and their consequences. It’s important to remember that ethic and moral values should be treated as the highest human achievements and should be always kept in mind when making decision.
There are several ways to estimate the results of our decisions. We can estimate economic value, which can be give in direct and indirect values. Direct value can be measure in currency and indirect value can be composed of not material things, which still bring profit to the problem solver or organization. Indirect values may include positive or negative influence on reputation, label price, goodwill, etc.
Decision makers should always consider the possibility of undesirable result. Decision making process usually implies risks and choices between several perspectives. The risk of choosing the wrong perspective or wrong strategy always accompanies any process of decision making. It’s necessary to consider and estimate all possible risks and bad consequences of the decision.
It’s not possible to make a 100% perfect forecast of all the nuances when making the decision. Choosing the alternative, decision makers have to base some part of their assumptions on predictions and forecasts. Mistakes or changes in the forecasted information can case different results. The more precise data and information is used while making the decision, the less probability of contingencies is. In the situation when there is no possibility to skip uncertain data or predictions, its necessary to call the percentage of contingencies when choosing the alternative.
Critical or evaluative thinking can become a perfect tool for making the right decisions. It can be used either for group or for individual decision making. It can be used for the profession of manager as this profession assumes taking a lot of decision and their critical evaluation and right understanding of the situation could bring a lot of profit and prevent undesirable loses.
留學作業網References
1. Brassard, M., and Ritter, D. [1994]. The Memory Jogger™ A Pocket Guide of Tools for Continuous Improvement and Effective Planning, Salem, MA: Goal/QPC
2. Algert, N.E. (2000). The Center for Change and Conflict Resolution. (979)775–5335,
3. Block, P. (2002). The Answer to How is Yes: Acting on What Really Matters, San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.
4. Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Holubec, E.J., 1986. Circles of Learning: Cooperation in the Classroom, rev. ed. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.
5. Brainstorming, Mindtools [Online]. Available on the World Wide Web at
6. Scholtes, P.R., Joiner, B.L., Streibel, B.J., and Mann, D. (1996). The Team Handbook, 2d ed., Oriel, Inc.
 
(責任編輯:Lynn)

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