愛爾蘭地區空中交通管理理論體系

發布時間:2019-10-19 16:46
First, the British air traffic management system prevailing ills   1 decree is not uniform Air Traffic Control to subordinate superior business management department issued instructions to the Regional Administration of the Civil Aviation Administration of the regional Air Traffic Management Command Post, General Air Traffic therefore need to adopt administrative measures to implement an industry management standards, must pass the Regional Administration release.   (2) Facilities Construction Management is not uniform   ATC's construction business needs planning, project reporting arrangements in the upward step by step process of vetting, the lower air traffic control department of information were two channels through administrative and operational reporting, so that each channel in fact inaccurate information obtained , incomplete. Air traffic control department of the acquired business are just some statistical information, but some of the empty tube very valuable management information can not directly and timely access. In the management system, poor access to information in the case, air traffic control departments at all levels of both air traffic control system is responsible for the safe operation, but also to carry out the industry, which is really contrary to scientific decision-making, decrees unity, unity responsibilities and rights management principles.     3 Investment Management unreasonable State investment in air traffic control, in the actual operation is implemented through administrative mainline. For civil construction fund investment, air traffic control department has only proposed demand planning and investment advice, and have clear investment projects implementation and management of the construction process, and no investment decisions, nor bear the investment risk of liability. Makes some places and department heads no investment risk awareness, high import investment ATC equipment purchase only attention without trying to improve their utilization, resulting in very low investment efficiency. For ATC equipment has been purchased, do not pay attention to management and maintenance, resulting in many ATC equipment reliability and service life greatly reduced, resulting in unnecessary waste of state-owned assets.     4 ATC facilities irrational allocation of resources CAAC unified revenue gains with international flight routes, air traffic control centers each separate statistics on domestic flights settlement route benefits, so the air traffic control center responsible for the management and maintenance of facilities for the civil aviation sector route exists between the revenue route charges allocation problem. And, en-route facilities using natural vested property right way placed under the management and maintenance of the department responsible for the original. For Airway Facilities Maintenance Management department failed to devote sufficient human, material and financial resources to ensure the maintenance of quality and reliability, precision equipment seriously affected the life and health status.     5 airspace division unreasonable route settings do not reflect the principle of economy, airspace utilization is low Since a large number of published and unpublished danger zones, restricted areas, not only the existing civil aviation tortuous route set, does not meet the "minimize flyer miles," the route setting norms and shed route difficult, resulting in a small number of routes to accommodate unreasonably high flight traffic.     6 Jun, civil aviation primitive isolation method When the army special mission aircraft when flying military aircraft designated airspace agreement scheme mostly isolated, sudden flight by military and civil aviation avoid inevitable initial confusion, the latter is often necessary because the use of airspace restrictions for traffic control. And, now the British military, civil aviation standards are different intervals, resulting in a large area of ​​airspace waste.   Second, the British brand of air management system framework    A British air traffic control system features positioning     Air traffic management is to build a modern integrated transport system the UK an important part of civil aviation is safe, efficient and fair operation of the foundation. In the UK integrated transport system, air traffic transport transportation system is the country an important part, as the sustained economic and social development of civil aviation transportation system in the country will continue to increase in the proportion and become long-haul and high-end transport of goods major way. "Bottleneck in the development of civil aviation air traffic control," the British Civil Aviation in the field of air traffic control investment, construction and management level of the industry behind restricting the British Civil Aviation sustainable and rapid development of the main obstacles to British specialties ATC system is to enhance the development and construction of civil foundation The key initiatives of the operation system, can become the core of the British modern transportation projects.     2 British specialties ATC system framework     (1) to change the past, "two main lines, three management" system as the linear system management system. Linear system of air traffic control system changes the business sector must be higher administrative bureau subordinate status of implementation and management of the business sector, the formation of public affairs separate, run integration. CAA Air Traffic Control, regional Air Traffic Control ATC industry management functions and operation of the implementation of separation of functions, the industry functions exercised by Administration and the Regional Authority; CAA Air Traffic Control and the regional Air Traffic Strike business management and operational functions, vertical management, integration operation. Administration and business management to achieve unity.     (2) In the area of ​​responsibility for air traffic management settings management agency. This management system, breaking the previous planned economy under the administration as a link fragmented management structure is conducive to all levels of air traffic control department under the General Administration of the unified deployment, combined with their own jurisdiction empty real business needs formulate development goals, effectively change the past to focus only on airfield facilities, ignoring route facility construction conditions conducive to the rational allocation of route facilities and perfect.     (3) to major national technology and special and included in the national long-term planning and other forms of air traffic control system established British specialty technology platform building goals and direction for state support of national concern, the British national collection of various resources for technical breakthrough.     (4) a mechanism to establish cross-sectoral collaboration platform and strategic partnership between the industry, from the establishment of the system performance requirements (goals), and improve technology policy, science and technology resources available outside the industry to mobilize other aspects of civil aviation technology development to create a new model, and create Aviation broad pattern of development.   Third, the construction of the UK features air management system of policy recommendations 1 military and civilian air control area should be as consistent as possible Resources from the national airspace overall consideration, scientific, unified control zone division, army and air control zone as much as possible to achieve consensus, which is to improve airspace utilization, which will help coordinate military and civil aviation effective way.   (2) a reasonable modification route (routes) structure British route (routes) structure, along with the civil aviation transportation needs evolved form, and its direction by the military airport training airspace restrictions, turning more flight not economic. In recent years, in Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai and other busy areas of the approach and departure routes for the adjustment and optimization, has received good safety and economic benefits. Planning, modifying route (route) to focus on the country's economic benefits, the implementation of the overall planning, so as to shorten the voyage between cities.     3 to establish a unified national traffic management system General and regional levels to implement traffic management systems in the Civil Aviation Administration to establish a national traffic management center, uniform implementation of the country's air traffic flow management; traffic management in the region to establish agencies or seats, according to the National Traffic Management Center requires the implementation of the region's air traffic flow management. Various flight plan approval, flight traffic arrangements, flexible use of airspace as well as en-route flight conflicting temporary adjustment, will flow through a unified management system to achieve. Unified national traffic management systems, will achieve centralized, safe and efficient air traffic control operational objectives play a huge role.     4 Improved control methods Strengthen the ATC infrastructure construction, by changing the existing procedures control methods, automated radar control, to ensure the flight safety of the premise, to increase flight traffic.     5 In the airspace management to be flexible Training airspace in the military airport there is no activity, should be allowed to use civilian aircraft, in order to improve airspace utilization. In airspace management, national policy and coordination of military and civil aviation is very important.     首先,英國空中交通管理系統的普遍弊病   1政令不統一 空中交通管制,服從上級業務管理部門發出指示,民航總局,地區管理局,地區空中交通管理指揮所,一般空氣流量,因此需要采取行政措施,實施行業管理標準,必須通過區域管理釋放。   (2)設施建設管理不統一   ATC的施工業務需求規劃,項目申報安排在向上一步一步的審批過程中,較低的空中交通管制部門的信息是兩個渠道,使每個通道其實是不準確的信息,通過行政和業務報告,不完整的。空中交通管制部門的收購業務只是一些統計信息,但一些空管非常有價值的管理信息不能直接和及時獲取。在管理體制,信息渠道不暢的情況下,空中交通管制部門,空中交通管制系統各級都負責的安全運行,同時也開展行業,這實在是違背科學決策,政令統一,團結的責任和權限管理原則。     3投資管理不合理 空中交通管制的國家投資,在實際操作中是通過行政主線。民用建筑基金投資,空中交通管制部門提出的需求規劃和投資建議,并有明確的投資項目的實施和建設過程中的管理,并沒有投資決策,也不承擔投資風險的責任。一些地方和部門負責人沒有投資風險意識,較高的進口投資ATC設備購置唯一注意的,而試圖提高其利用率,導致投資效率非常低。對于空管設備已經購買,不注重管理和維護,導致許多空管設備的可靠性和使用壽命大大降低,造成不必要的浪費,國有資產。     4 ATC設施,資源配置不合理 民航總局統一收益與國際航線,空中交通管制中心,每個單獨的統計數據的國內航班結算路線的好處,所以空中交通管制中心負責設施的管理和維護民航部門路線之間存在著收入航路費分配的問題。而且,航路設施采用天然既得產權劃歸原來的部門負責管理和維護方式。對于航路設施的維護管理部門沒有投入足夠的人力,物力和財力,以確保維修質量和可靠性,精密設備,嚴重影響了生活和健康狀況。     5空域劃分路線設置不合理,不反映經濟的原則,空域利用率很低 由于大量發表和未發表的危險區,禁區,不僅現有的民航曲折的路線集,不符合“最小化飛行里程”的路線設置規范和棚路線困難,導致在少數航線以適應不合理的高飛行流量。     6月6日,民航原始隔離法 當軍隊的特殊使命飛機,軍用飛機飛行時指定的空域協議計劃大多是孤立的,突發的軍事和民用航空飛行避免最初的混亂不可避免的,后者往往是必要的,因為交通管制空域限制使用。而且,現在的英國軍用,民用航空標準是不同的時間間隔,導致了大面積的空域浪費。   二,英國品牌的空氣管理系統框架 一名英國空中交通管制系統的功能定位     空中交通管理是建立一個現代化的綜合交通運輸體系,英國民用航空的重要組成部分,是安全,高效和公平運作的基礎。在英國綜合交通運輸體系,是國家空中交通運輸系統的重要組成部分,在全國經濟社會持續發展的民用航空運輸系統的比例將繼續加大,并成為長途和高端運輸商品主要方式。 “民用航空空中交通控制的發展瓶頸,”英國民用航空空中交通管制的投資,建設和管理水平的行業領域中落后英國民航持續快速發展的主要障礙限制英國特色以提高空管系統的開發和建設土建基礎作業系統的關鍵舉措,都可以成為英國的現代交通項目的核心。     2英國特色的ATC系統框架     (1)改變了過去“兩條主線,三個管理”系統的線性系統的管理體系。空中交通管制系統的線性系統改變業務部門必須上級行政主管局的業務部門,形成政事分開,運行一體化的實施和管理的從屬地位。民航局空管局,地區空管局空管行業管理職能和操作功能,行業行使的職能由政府和各地區管理局,民航局空管局和地區空中交通行使業務管理和運營職能分離的實施,垂直管理,一體化運作。行政和業務管理的統一。     (2)在該地區的空中交通管理設置管理機構的責任。這個管理系統,打破了以往的計劃經濟體制下的管理為紐帶,分散的管理結構,有利于各級空中交通管制部門根據總局的統一部署,結合自己的管轄空實際業務需求制定的發展目標,有效地改變了過去只集中于機場設施,忽略路由設施建設的合理配置路由的設施和完善的有利條件。     (3)國家重大技術特殊和列入國家長遠規劃和其他形式的空中交通管制系統建立了英國的專業技術平臺建設的目標和方向,為全國關注的國家的支持,英國國家收集各種資源技術的突破。     (4)機制,建立跨部門的協作平臺和行業之間的戰略合作伙伴關系,建立了系統的性能要求(目標),提高技術政策,科學和科技資源外業調動等方面的民間航空技術的發展,以創建一個新的模型,并建立航空廣闊的發展格局。   三,施工英國提供空氣管理系統的政策建議 1軍用和民用空中管制區應盡可能一致 資源從國家空域的整體考慮,科學,統一的控制區劃分,軍隊和空氣質素管制區盡可能達成共識,這是提高空域利用率,這將有助于協調軍用和民用航空的有效途徑。   (2)有合理的修改路由(航線)結構 英國航線(航線)結構,隨著民航運輸的需求進化形式,其方向由軍用機場訓練空域的限制,把更多的飛行不是經濟。近年來,在北京,廣州,上海及其他繁忙地區調整和優化進離場航線,已收到了良好的安全性和經濟效益。規劃修改路徑(路徑),專注于國家的經濟利益,實施的總體規劃,從而縮短了城市之間的航程。     3建立了全國統一的交通管理系統 一般和地區的水平,以實現交通管理系統在民航總局建立一個國家的交通管理中心,該國的空中交通流管理的統一實施;設立機構或席位的區域的交通管理,根據在全國交通管理中心該地區的空中交通流量管理規定執行。各種飛行計劃審批,飛行交通安排,靈活使用空域和航路飛行沖突的臨時調整,將通過一個統一的管理系統,實現流動。全國統一的交通管理系統,將實現集中,安全,高效的空中交通管制工作目標發揮了巨大的作用。     4改進控制方法 加強空管基礎設施建設,通過改變現有的程序的控制方法,自動雷達控制,以確保飛行安全的前提下,增加飛行流量。     在空域管理要靈活 軍用機場訓練空域沒有任何活動,應允許使用民用飛機,以提高空域利用率。在國家政策和協調的軍事和民用航空空域管理,是非常重要的。

 

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