發布時間:2019-10-19 16:46
England from 1984 started to develop computer-based interlocking system, at present, as the core railway transportation safety control system, replacing the original 6502 Electric, but with the large-scale development of computer interlocking system also exposed more and more problem. Since many computer-based interlocking system retains nearly 30% of the relay circuit, complex structure, large area, multi-wire, solder joints, this causes high failure rate, anti-interference ability is weak, while interlocking software out of the intellectual property protection considerations, is completely closed, for interlocking software correctness, security, not in-depth control. Software testing is only limited to functional testing, black box testing, the test can not be exhaustive range of functions.   The development of a computer-based interlocking requirements and development   1.1 Computer Interlocking development requirements To ensure that rail transport leaps and bounds, give full play to the railway signal factories, engineering units, specialized construction units, electrical service maintenance units role in ensuring the basic security conditions, based on the computer-based interlocking system allows multi-level units become widely participate to achieve an open interlock devices. Computer interlocking system of the ideal state is: ① complete factory production; ② completely standardized design; ③ most simplified construction site; ④ most simplified acceptance mode; ⑤ most simplified maintenance approach; ⑥ most simplified maintenance tools; ⑦ easiest secondary development that free secondary development; ⑧ complete device parameter monitoring function; ⑨ meet the railway traffic automation interface functions.   1.2 Computer Interlocking direction of development         1.2.1 Take two squares two systems UK's current computer interlocking system are: hot standby, two out of three and two by two to take two systems. Hot Standby system problem exists Dual switch, switch failure would have serious consequences for the risk; shielded redundant technology to take two of the three systems, although the possibility of dangerous output is extremely small, but there can not be downtime problems; therefore This year the main technological transformation and new railway lines have given priority to take two squares two systems, two by two computer interlocking system is also taking future trends.     1.2.2 Fully electronic As manufacturing technology continues to improve, the electronic unit to get the vigorous development of electronic unit with a small, powerful features; facilitate networking, remote management and remote diagnostics. Thus, with the Ministry of Science and continues to progress, to get rid of the relay, using fully electronic computer interlocking will be a trend.     1.2.3 Modular For ease of use and maintenance of computer interlocking should move towards modular, functional direction to achieve the module line replacement, saving the system maintenance time.   2 full electronic modular computer interlocking system features and functions     2.1 Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system with the characteristics     2.1.1 hardware configuration Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system using industrial control technology, the abolition of all 6502 relay module is in direct control of the outdoor unit switch machines, signals machines, track circuits, in a clear, comprehensive fault diagnosis and fault indication and all modules support hot-swappable capabilities, cabinet wiring with plug-in cable directly correspond noseplate will minimize the amount of construction, the use of direct replacement module, the first maintenance after analyzing ways to achieve "fool" the construction and maintenance.     2.1.2 Software constitutes Interlocking Software should break the current computer interlocking system interlock seclusion other barriers to achieve an open source code level, and its "messaging" and "module assembled" interlocking ideas and original 6502 15 network cable and Puzzles designed in a way similar to the implementation of modular, trained technical personnel should be able to cope with any new station interlocking software design and debugging, testing to ensure early detection can minimize and resolve software in a variety of potential security risks, computer-aided design system refers to the user input station plan and set the necessary parameters, you can automatically generate interlock programs and data to minimize human error.     2.2 Full computer interlocking system should have the function 2.2.1 achieve the basic functions and special interlock interlock function Achieve progress on the road turnout, signal and track circuit interlock properly to ensure correct and train running into the road safety, to meet all of the interlock function 6502, the main features include: ① handle all stations train route, shunting into the road and roundabout approach. Equipment failure can be handled in the boot and boot into the path of total lockdown. ② The end is always handled two ways. Shunting into the road at once handled by a few basic approach consisting grow way, can also be handled by one segment. ③ signals belonging to the hostile approach, can not open. Only checked into the path of all track sections idle, all the relevant switch position is correct and has been locked in position, according to investigate and correct the hostile relations, the signal to open. ④ having a signal normally closed function, special off function to prevent automatic repeat function open signals and artificial repeat open feature. ⑤ with approach automatically unlock, halfway back to unlock, unlock cancellation approach, labor and trouble unlocking unlock approach into the road. ⑥ having separate operation functions turnout. According to the special requirements of stations to achieve special interlocking relationships, such as: single hook slide release function, stock Road middle Chucha feature non shunting into the road, continuing into the road, local control station or turnouts and clinical linkages interval occlusion.     2.2.2 The flexible system configuration function Fully electronic interlocking modular computer system using three-layer structure, the upper PC, Could it be an opportunity, then layer; upper layer via a communication network and the second interlocking machine communication; third layer is 10 module execution units. According selection of different composition interlocking machine can achieve hot standby interlock fault tolerant computer or three takes two interlocking squares two computers or take two interlocking computer systems.     2.2.3 Monitoring Function System without adding any other device, to achieve the indoor and outdoor equipment, the basic parameters and status monitoring.     2.2.4 History graphic reproduction function System has a complete record function, can store a year's information, which includes: driving job handling information, station graphics (signals, turnouts, track sections and other field device status) information, reflecting the system runs a variety of data . Adjustable recording system for any period of time all the data for playback to reproduce the real situation of the system at that time, as the cause of the accident analysis provide a convenient tool.     2.2.5 improve self-diagnostic function System through the readback, software and other technology to achieve the dual coding failure to board-level self-diagnosis.     2.2.6 maintenance and remote diagnostics System capable of recording all operations and signaling equipment status; monitoring and reporting system failures; easily query a variety of information stored in the memory; storage and print records; through the network system  failure can notify to the remote maintenance department, the maintenance department may need to dispatch technicians to repair the corresponding remote diagnostics.     2.2.7 Implementation and other information systems binding function The system has the oversight and scheduling, dispatching centralized systems such as communication. To achieve information sharing between stations.     2.2.8 weakening function with fault System interlocking machine either hot standby, take two or three squares two take two, the input and output layer IO modules are used within "two to take two" to protect the "fail safe backward", that is, each module has two sets of circuits. Interlocking system of partial failure does not affect the safe operation of equipment in the case of systems with fault weakening function. 3 Conclusion Full computer control of railway signal interlocking system is a new generation of interlock devices, systems to computer control technology as the core, power electronic switching technology based on the use of electronic means, the use of computer communications, automatic detection and other advanced technologies, to achieve full electronic control computer of the railway signal interlocking equipment, small, powerful, easy networking, for railway automation, information technology to provide basic information, remote management and remote diagnostics, railway signaling professional development.   英國從1984年開始發展,目前計算機聯鎖系統為核心的鐵路運輸安全控制系統,取代了原有的6502電氣集中,但與計算機聯鎖系統的大規模發展也暴露出越來越多的問題。由于許多計算機聯鎖系統保留近30%的繼電器電路,結構復雜,大面積,多線,焊點,這將導致高故障率,抗干擾能力弱,而聯鎖軟件知識產權保護的考慮,是完全封閉的,聯鎖系統軟件的正確性,安全性,不深入控制。軟件測試僅限于功能測試,黑箱測試,測試不能詳盡的功能范圍。   一種基于計算機的聯鎖要求與發展的發展   1.1計算機聯鎖的發展要求 為了確保鐵路運輸跨越式發展,充分發揮鐵路信號工廠,工程單位,專業施工單位,電器維修保養單位的作用,在保證基本的安全條件,計算機聯鎖系統的基礎上,允許多級單位得到越來越廣泛的參與來實現一個開放的聯鎖裝置。計算機聯鎖系統的理想狀態是:①完整的工廠生產;②完全標準化設計;③最簡化的施工現場;④最簡化的接受模式;⑤最簡化的維護方法;⑥最簡化的維修工具;⑦最簡單的二次開發,免費二級發展;⑧完整的設備參數監控功能;⑨滿足鐵路交通自動化接口功能。   1.2計算機聯鎖的發展方向     1.2.1兩個正方形兩個系統 英國目前的計算機聯鎖系統:雙機熱備,兩三個,兩個兩個地采取兩個系統。熱備系統存在問題雙開關,開關故障將有嚴重后果的風險;屏蔽冗余技術,需要兩三個系統,雖然危險輸出的可能性是非常小的,但不能停機問題,因此今年主要技術改造和新鐵路線都優先考慮采取兩個正方形兩個系統,兩個二計算機聯鎖系統也考慮未來的發展趨勢。     1.2.2全電子化 隨著制造技術的不斷提高,電子設備蓬勃發展的電子裝置具有體積小,功能強大的特點,便于聯網,遠程管理和遠程診斷。因此,科技部將繼續進步,擺脫繼電器,采用完全電子化計算機聯鎖將是一個趨勢。     1.2.3模塊化 為了便于使用和維護計算機聯鎖應該朝著模塊化,功能化方向發展,實現模塊的在線更換,節省了系統維護時間。   2全電子模塊化計算機聯鎖系統的特性和功能     2.1全電子模塊化計算機聯鎖系統的特點     2.1.1硬件配置 全電子模塊化計算機聯鎖系統采用工業控制技術,直接控制的室外機開關機,信號機,軌道電路,在一個清晰,全面的故障診斷和故障指示取消所有6502繼電器模塊,所有模塊支持熱插拔拔插功能,帶插頭的電纜直接對應分線盤柜接線將盡量減少施工量,采用直接更換模塊,首次保養后,分析的方式來實現“傻瓜式”的建設和維護。     2.1.2軟件構成 聯鎖軟件應該打破目前計算機聯鎖系統的聯鎖隱居其他方面的障礙,以實現一個開放的源代碼級的,其“消息”和“模塊組裝”環環相扣的想法和原來的6502 15網絡電纜和實施類似的方式設計的拼圖模塊化的,訓練有素的技術人員,應該能夠應付任何新的車站聯鎖軟件設計和調試,測試,以確保早期檢測,可以最大限度地減少和解決軟件中的各種潛在的安全風險,計算機輔助設計系統是指用戶輸入站計劃設置必要的參數,就可以自動生成聯鎖程序和數據,以盡量減少人為錯誤。     2.2計算機聯鎖系統應具備的功能 2.2.1實現基本功能和特殊聯鎖聯鎖功能 取得進展的道路上開道岔,信號正確軌道電路互鎖,以確保正確和列車運行進路安全,以滿足所有的聯鎖功能6502,主要功能包括:①處理所有站的火車路線,調車進路,迂回的辦法。進入總鎖定的路徑,可以處理設備故障,在開機和引導。 ②端始終處理兩種方式。分流到一次處理的幾個基本的方法,由生長方式的道路,也可以由一分部處理。 ③信號的屬于敵對辦法,不能打開。只有最好的到所有音軌部分閑置的路徑,所有相關的開關位置是正確的,并已鎖定位置,根據調查和糾正的敵對關系,信號打開。 ④具有信號常閉功能,特殊的功能,可以防止自動重復功能開啟信號和人工重復打開的功能。 ⑤與方法自動解鎖,中途回解鎖,解鎖注銷的方法,勞動力和麻煩開鎖解鎖方法入路。 ⑥具有單獨操作功能投票。 據站來實現特殊的環環相扣的關系,如:單鉤溜放功能,股道中間出岔功能的非調車進路,繼續成道路,當地控制站或道岔及臨床聯系,區間閉塞的特殊要求。     2.2.2靈活的系​​統配置功能 全電子模塊化計算機聯鎖系統采用三層結構,上位PC機,它可以是一個機會,那么層通過通信網絡和第二聯鎖機通信的上層,第三層是10個模塊的執行單元。 根據選擇不同成分的聯鎖機可以實現熱備用聯鎖容錯計算機或三取二的聯鎖廣場兩臺電腦或采取兩個聯鎖電腦系統。     2.2.3監控功能 不添加任何其他設備的情況下,實現在室內和室外設備的基本參數和狀態監測系統。     2.2.4歷史圖形再現功能 系統具有完整的記錄功能,可存儲一年的信息,其中包括:駕駛作業處理信息,站圖形信息(信號,道岔,軌道區段和其他現場設備狀態),反映了系統運行的各種數據。任何一段時間可調錄音系統的所有數據進行回放重現系統的實際情況,在那個時候,事故的原因分析提供了一個方便的工具。     2.2.5完善的自診斷功能 通過回讀,軟件和其他技術來實現雙重編碼故障板級自我診斷系統。     2.2.6維護和遠程診斷 系統能夠記錄所有操作和信號設備狀態監測和報告系統故障,方便地查詢各種信息存儲在內存中存儲和打印記錄,通過網絡系統故障可以通知遠程維護部門的維修部門需要派遣技術人員來修復相應的遠程診斷。     2.2.7實施和其他信息系統綁定功能 該系統具有監督和調度,調度集中系統,如通信。站之間實現信息共享。     2.2.8具有故障弱化功能 系統聯鎖機可選擇熱備份,需要兩個或三個正方形兩個需要兩個輸入和輸出層IO模塊內使用的“采取兩個”保護“故障安全落后”,那就是,每個模塊都有兩套電路。聯鎖系統局部故障不影響設備安全運行的情況下系統具有故障弱化功能。 3結論 全電腦控制鐵路信號聯鎖系統的聯鎖裝置,系統是新一代計算機控制技術為核心,以電力電子開關技術的基礎上利用電子手段,利用計算機通訊,自動檢測等先進技術,實現鐵路信號聯鎖設備,體積小,功能強大,易于聯網,鐵路自動化,信息化技術,提供基本信息,遠程管理和遠程診斷,鐵路信號專業發展的全電子控制的計算機。