Viral Marketing

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Viral Marketing 1.1 Viral Marketing These years, the competitions among companies become more and more furious. Song(2004)pointed out that many companies in order to survive even to develop, they try to make good use any way that can help them to enlarge their market share and build a strong brand. The traditional Medias such as television, newspaper, radio and printed Ads were over used in the last decade. This view was supported by Mogg (2006) who believed that using these traditional ways to promote a product or service not longer can stimulate audiences’ passion and urge effectively. Because in some extent, audiences were get used to receive information of these ways, they need something new, need a new “flavor” of the information they receive (Sally, 2006). The era that customers rely on marketers’ suggestions or advertising to make a purchase decision was gone. Czinkota (2007) argued that only supply the information that you think customers would need is not working, not enough to persuade customers, and can not fulfill their needs and satisfy them. Customers already become smart enough; they do not like to be persuaded by marketers or advertisings in many situations. They prefer to be active in the buying process and use their own knowledge and standards to decide what they need, and what they happy to buy (Grewal, 2008). A strong brand can make customers have faith in a company and its products. This view seems acceptable for Fill (2005) who agreed that building close relationship with customers is vital; companies try their best to pursue the best marketing strategies with the purpose to be strong and profitable. Word of mouth is one of the effective ways for a company to promote its products (Anderson, 1999). Word-of-Mouth (WOM) was described as oral, person-to-person communication between a receiver and a communicator which the receiver perceives as a noncommercial message, regarding a brand, product or service (Haywood, 1989, pp53-66). It can help a company use less money to do the mass promotion. This view was supported by Buttle(1998), he believed that customers are easier to be persuaded through this way as they think it is a noncommercial way. They consider that they are on the active position to receive information and make a buying decision, not be persuaded to do that. With the evolution of technology, and the growth of the internet, the arena of many companies have move from realistic world to a new world—the internet (Castells, 1997). Word of mouth has upgrade through internet, and gets a new name “viral marketing” these years (Modzelewski, 2000). Base on Dicher’s (2001, pp47) research, “viral marketing is a strategy that companies use to stimulate their customer to pass on something about their products to their network of colleagues and friends”. For the company, viral marketing can help a company use a little budget to promote itself sharply, since the information you send out, customers would pass them on by themselves. In the customers’ side, viral marketing help customers feel better as they think that they make the purchase decision by themselves, and they get information from their friends who seem more reliable than marketers or advertisings. (Wangenheim, 2007, pp131-146) Base on the advantages of internet, using viral marketing relate to internet can make the promotion effect like a nuclear bomb. Internet can make the information deliver very fast, even exceed your expectation. Sudaraman and Rajagopalan(2003) found that since you use viral marketing to send out your information, it may reach every corner of world that has internet connections only need a few days. Internet seems something bring information deliver from the “Stone Age” to “21st century”, it acting like a pair of wings of information delivery, make information deliver reach to an incredible speed. Considering the effective of viral marketing strategy, this report decides to examine the effects of viral marketing that can make to a company. The author is very interested in the effects of viral marketing, as it is a trend for future business; it is so useful to company’s promotion and information delivery. To know clear about the viral marketing can help author to enrich his marketing knowledge, and will be very helpful in his future job or business, even can help readers of this report to know more about viral marketing. In order to make the research more reliable and get accurate analysis, this report would choose MySpace, an online company which seems to be success on using viral marketing strategy to assist the analysis. 1.2 MySpace Tom Anderson (born November 8, 1970) is the President of the social networking website, MySpace. He is one of the people identified as a founder of the site, along with CEO Chris DeWolfe (Boyd, 2006). At the beginning, it was a website with a small number of users, which used to make friends. Then they invite some famous people to join in, these famous people bring many fans in. since more and more bands build up their website on this station, MySpace becoming bigger and get huge number of users. It develop from a music wed station to a core of young people’s live in America, then explore all over the world(Diving into the Myspace Pool, 2006). It chooses to give users enough freedom to build what they like in this wed station, and this freedom and right make it explore so quickly. People can use their email address to sign up as the user of it. (Source from Dwyer, 2007) Every user can upload the things they like, such as video and sound clips, pictures and many other things. MySpace listen to their users and improve the wed station, like increase blogs, message board, discuss rooms, and online communications. Users can talk to their friends there, play games together, even use wed camera to meet each other when they talking.(source from Boyd, 2006) This wed station can make users feel so free in it; they can talk what they like with their friends here. So users invite their friends to join in MySpace (Diving into the MySpace Pool, 2006). In such a way, MySpace reach to a great success. Until 2006, MySpace only set up three years, but its development speed was faster than any wed station in history, it is a myth of the internet development history. It already beyond Yahoo and Google to be the biggest wed station in USA. It was set up with a very small cost, but in 2005, Rupert Murdoch, the CEO of The News Corporation Limited, use 580 million dollar to buy it. One year after it was purchased, it earn 900 million dollar from Google for advertising fee. (Source from Hempel and Lehman, 2005) It seems that MySpace really a success example to make good use of viral marketing strategy, that why this report choose UK MySpace as the case study to assist the research and analysis. 1.3 Research Objectives a. Examine the effects that viral marketing can make to a company, associate with case study-----UK MySpace b. Access to customers attitude and reactions to viral marketing through primary and secondary data analysis c. Find out the effects of viral marketing for a company’s success at last. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 The Background and Development of Viral Marketing Marketing is a social process which satisfies consumers' needs. The term includes advertising, distribution and selling of a product or service. It is also concerned with anticipating the customers' future needs and expectations, often through market research (Frenzen and Nakamoto, 1993). This view was supported by Eugene (1998) who believed that marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. Pamela (2000) pointed out that traditional marketing is the marketing techniques that are used for many years, it mainly using mediums such as, television, newspaper, telephone and radio. Nowadays, there are many new technologies are used to replace the traditional mediums to do promotions: Internet, multimedia mobile phone, blogs and so on. These new mediums can help marketers to reach more customers and cut cost. This view was supported by Wegert (2004) who believed that the traditional mediums do not work effective as before, they make many audiences feel boring and many offers what they dislike. Customers want to see something new and soothing, really make them interesting and happy, so the new mediums may work effective and can catch their eyeballs (Anderson, 1998, pp104-141). These years, more and more people like to surfing on internet (Wangenheim, 2007). This situation leads to many marketers focus on internet to promote their products and services. Especially, young people prefer using internet to traditional mediums. For a company’s future development, holding the young people now can make them get a big market share in the future (Bayus, 1985). So to make good use of the internet to do promotion is vital for many companies, especially the company which rely on internet to do business. There are many advantages to use internet as an advertising medium: message can change quickly and easily; create own page cheaply; low cost; direct sales possible and so on (McWilliams, 2000). Base on its advantages, more and more companies choose to use internet to do advertisings. Several main online promotion techniques are recognized by marketing researchers, viral marketing will be the focus of this research as it can reach mass consumers in a short time with a low cost. 2.2 From WOM to Viral Marketing During the last decade, customer satisfaction and perceived service quality have been important topics in the marketing literature. This is due to the empirically verified belief that increases in satisfaction and quality will finally result in higher profitability (Wangenheim, 2007). Over the past 10 years however the focus of research on satisfaction and quality has slowly shifted from understanding how “service quality perceptions and satisfaction judgments” are formed to a more “outcome-oriented view” of assessing the returns on service quality and satisfaction based on a thorough understanding of the associated costs and benefits (Buttle, 1998, pp76-89). A strategy called “viral marketing” was used by many companies to pursue the profit. Before the “viral marketing” appears, a marketing strategy called “word of mouth” was used in that way. Haywood (1989) believed that Word-of-Mouth (WOM) refers to oral, person-to-person communication between a receiver and a communicator which the receiver perceives as a noncommercial message, regarding a brand, product or service. Even though WOM strategy can bring huge benefits to a company, the development of technology usage has upgraded the word of mouth strategy to a new one call “viral marketing” (Richins, 1999). These years, stationary Internet consumers’ communication environment has been changed and enriched. As a result WOM has gained new significance and WOM on the stationary Internet was termed “viral marketing”. This view was supported by Godes and Mayzlin (2004), that Viral or word-of-mouth marketing has become very popular because it has a new medium—the Internet. According to one venture capital firm, 76 percent of new business plans have the words "viral marketing" in them (File, Cermak and Prince, 2000). Using e-mail makes it incredibly easy to pass information on to a friend or colleague, especially if it involves something fun or free. With millions using the Internet all over the world, the potential for exponential growth is quite huge. 2.3 What is Viral Marketing Since the term viral marketing was introduced in 1997, many disagreements exist about its definition. Subramani and Rajagopalan (2003) view it as word-of-mouth advertising in which consumers tell other consumers about the product or service. Yang and Allenby (2003) argued that true viral marketing differs from word-of-mouth in that the value of the virus to the original consumer is directly related to the number of other users it attracts. Shirky (2000) suggests that, in generally, viral marketing would be word-of-mouth advertising to most people. More importantly, however, he adds that the concept describes viral marketing as a way of getting new customers by encouraging honest communication among consumers. The originator of each branch of the virus has a unique and vested interest in recruiting people to the network. (Modzelewski, 2000, p.30). According to Senecal and Acques (2004) suggestion, purchasing is part of a social process, it involves a one-to-one interaction between the company and the customer and many exchanges of information and influence among the people who surround the customers. They also suggest that many effective networks comprise hubs, clusters, and connections among clusters. In these networks, people will notice a constant flow of green sparks between certain nodes. Wilson (2000) said that viral marketing is sort of this explosion that you start with one customer and he/she will tell people and pass it on continuously. In Dichter’s (2001, p47) opinion, “viral marketing is the idea that you incite your customers or referral sources to pass on something about your business to their network of colleagues and friends”. There is a similar saying that viral marketing describes any strategy that encourages customers to pass on a marketing message to others, creating the potential for exponential growth in the message's exposure and influence (Hogon, Lemon and Libai, 2004). Nalor (2002) claimed that viral marketing is a marketing tactic relying on some aspects of the system to promote itself as initial targets pass the promotion on to others. Depend mostly on Hogon, Lemon and Libai’s perspectives, the current article views viral marketing as the process of encouraging honest communication among consumer networks, and it focuses on email as the main channel. One example of viral marketing is encouraging current and potential customers to tell others about a company's products and services, and then encouraging those others to tell even more consumers, make the information go forward continuously (Subramani and Rajagopalan, 2003 ). These strategies like viruses, can take advantage of rapid multiplication to explode the message to thousands even to millions customers in a short time. “The term viral marketing is also used to refer to stealth marketing campaigns—the use of varied kinds of astroturfing both online and offline to create the impression of spontaneous word of mouth enthusiasm”(Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler,2004, pp 95). Out of the internet, viral marketing has been described as “word of mouth”, “creating a buzz”, “leveraging the media”, “network marketing”. However, on the internet, whatever, it was called “viral marketing” (Helm, 2000, pp 57-71). Datta, Chowdhury and Chakraborty (2005) used the term as “network-enhanced word of mouth” to describe the then high innovative marketing strategy of the free email service Hotmail. For other words, such terms as propagation, aggregation or organic marketing are used. Successful viral marketing is characterized as “strategies that allow an easier, accelerated, and cost reduced transmission of messages by creating environments for a self-replicating, exponentially increasing diffusion, spiritualization, and impact of the message”. (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2001) 2.4. Forms and Categories of Viral Marketing 2.4.1 Forms There are many forms of viral marketing; these include images, jokes, reality TV show transcripts, digital video clips, e-cards, interactive microsites, advergames, and alternative reality games (Modzelewski, 2000). The list is continuously growing as the development of viral marketing. 2.4.2 Categories There are several ways to categorize viral marketing. First, difference between “intentional and unintentional message” delivery and used a “motivational classification”. Secondary, difference is between “service-based and incentive-based”. In the first situation, viral effect was decided by the quality of offer, another one means that company uses monetary incentive to stimulate customers so that they would pass on an advertiser’s message. Base on the differences between private and public recommendation, the categorization between “high (active) and low (passive) integration strategies are varying in the degree of requiring the consumer’s activity in passing on the ‘virus’ ”. (Source from Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001, pp 209-257) 2.5 Viral Marketing in B2B Beside the explanation of viral marketing base on B2C, many authors get another similar definition for it on B2B side. In B2B, viral marketing means the rapid spread of a message about a new product or service, in a similar way to the spread of a virus (Yang and Allenby, 2003). Viral marketing can be word of mouth; however, it is particularly common being use on the Internet, where messages can be spread easily and quickly to reach people all over the world. Products can become very famous in this way with very little advertising cost. Carrabis (2006) has proved that viral marketing rely on social networks in order to function. Linking is also an effective viral marketing tool, as is the provision of free products or services. The Hotmail free e-mail service, for example, grew quickly with little marketing investment (Tafe, 2007). In B2B area, viral marketing works well in the following circumstances: (a) when a product is genuinely new and different, and it is something that opinion leaders want to associate with;(b) when the benefits of the product are real; (c) when the product is relevant to a large number of people, and the benefits are easy to communicate (Bansal and Voyer, 2000, p26-63). 2.6 Why Viral Marketing These years, online social networks are increasingly being considered as an important source of information to affect the adoption and use of products and services (Mac, 2006). Viral marketing as the tactic of creating a process where interested people can market to each other, is therefore emerging as an important marketing strategy to spread-the-word and stimulate the trial, adoption, and use of products and services. (Herr, Kardes and Kim, 1999) What is new about viral marketing is not word of mouth, but the way people are spreading it (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). Web users have the ears and eyes of hundreds, even thousands of people. They are in contact with an International crowd they would never have met otherwise. Most significantly, they can reach people they do not really know. That is why several weeks after a people sent the first Hotmail message into India; thousands of Indian users had Hotmail accounts (Kuruvilla, 2007). It is believed that a satisfied customer tells an average of three people about a product or service he likes, and nine people about a product or service which he dislikes (Sudaraman, Mitra and Webster, 1999). Viral marketing is based on this natural human behavior to conduct its campaigns. Domingos (2006) believed that the purpose of marketers interested in making a successful viral marketing campaign is to identify customers who with high social networking potentials, and then created viral messages that can attract this segment of the customers and have a high likely to keep the message spreading. Viral marketing has received extensive attention from both academics and practitioners these years (Jurvetson, 2000). Base on the analysis before, many authors form their standpoints about the effect that viral marketing strategy can bring to a company. They argue with other authors’ opinions base on their own standpoints. 2.6.1 Positive Effects of Viral Marketing Viral marketing facilitates spreading commercial information and content within the desired target group (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2001)). Another advantage of it is that advertisers can expand the promotion reach significantly at a very low company expense (Baker, 2005). According a survey of Duhan, Johnson, Wilcox and Harrell (1997), 35% of the 3000 respondents said a friend’s recommendation would convince them to visit a website they do not know before. These results illustrated the huge potential of viral marketing for communication and distribution purposes. What is great about viral marketing is that it is low cost and works virtually by itself. Once you make an offer and provide the facility, for referrals, viral marketing spreads by itself very faster, just like a virus (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). Just like Tafe (2007) said that, Hotmail only cost 18 months to get 12 million users by using viral marketing that let users to referral users, it cost nothing to do Ads, only use free email account. Viral marketing has been studied both as an input into consumer decision-making, and as an outcome of the purchase process (Holmes and Lett, 1997). In the pre-purchase stage, as a risk reducing strategy, consumers seek product information by participating in the viral marketing process. Positive and negative messages are examples of exit behaviors exhibited by consumers at the conclusion of a service encounter ((Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004) or usage of a product (Naylor and Kleiser, 2000). Anderson (1998) pointed out that viral marketing could “influence consumers’ choices and purchase decisions, and shape consumers’ expectations, pre-usage attitudes, even post-usage perceptions of a product or service”. It is believed that the influence of viral marketing is much greater than that of classic advertising media (Gremler, Gwinner and Brown, 2001).BMW is a good example, it supply 5 video clips to watch and download for free, and then get over 11 million visitor in 4 months. The sales of BMW car are increase 12.5% in the next year (Hespos, 2002). It seems that video clips and internet can make viral marketing working effectively. Viral marketing has been referred to as product-related conversation, personal recommendations, informal communication, and interpersonal communication (Jacob, Barak and Muller, 2001). There are one big distinction between viral marketing activities and commercial mass communication. As viral marketing is a consumer-dominated channel of information, the communicator is thought to be independent of the marketer (Lau and NG, 2001). As a result, it is recognized by customers as a more reliable, credible, and trustworthy source of information. It provides information concerning product performance and the social and psychological consequences of a purchase decision (Naylor and Kleiser, 2000). For example, Myspace use viral marketing to make the users to referral itself and make a big success (Dwyer, 2007). Viral marketing can convert lower order cognition and affect to higher order cognition and affect, which in turn can lead to committed behaviors of receivers (Baker, 2005). The credibility of viral marketing, coupled with the probability that a receiver will be more highly involved in a viral marketing message than an advertisement, lends itself to the formation of such higher order beliefs and cognition. Through multiple dyads and retransmission, one message can reach and potentially influence many receivers (Henning-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler, 2004). Make good use of the customers’ internet social networks, like using free email referrals and internet chat rooms, the information can spread sharply (Domingos, 2006). The effectiveness of viral marketing can also be explained by the accessibility-diagnosticity model (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). Some findings suggest that vividly (face-to-face) presented information is more memorable to customers and is weighed more heavily in their judgments (Henning-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler, 2004).such as Myspace, it use the chat rooms that users can talk to each other, even face-to-face through PC camera, and then its information become more reliable and memorable for users (Boyd, 2006). Because of internet, information accessibility increases, it is high likely that this information is used by customers as an input for their judgments and choices also increases (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). 2.6.2 Negative Effects of Viral Marketing For all its advantages, viral marketing also has many unexpected pitfalls. Most important, companies have almost no control over the viral spread since it was send out, and therefore they can do little if the viral turns to against them and their products (Jurvetson, 2000). “The action most frequently reported by consumers who are dissatisfied with a purchase or who have rejected or discontinued using a product is telling friends about the experience and urging them to avoid it” (Weinberger and Lepkowska-White, 2000 ). Many researchers have suggested that negative information tends to cause many attention to and weighting of that information (Bristor, 1990). For example, Naylor and Kleiser (2000) found that negative messages destroy the image of a brand are more than twice as strongly as positive WOM promoted sales of that product. Negative message has also led to the failure of many companies’ promotion. Wilson (2000) argues that negative messages would be communicated to more people than positive messages. According to much previous evidence about the spread of marketing information, it is suggested that a negative message may travel farther than a positive message through retransmission. In previous research; the influencer was often considering to be an opinion leader. However, a dissatisfied customer who initiates negative message need not be an opinion leader, and yet his opinions can have adverse effects on the marketer (Richins, 1999). For example, Sony try to use Youtube to promote its Playstation consoles, it created an imaginary character called Peter and tried to make the character as a hip -hop shark. However, some clever users soon discovered the wile, and tell many others. Many people then angary with what SONY done, and refuse to buy the playstation consoles. In the end, Sony had to make a public apology to delighted and hold the customers. (Source from Kuruvilla, 2007) 2.6.3 Viral Marketing Effects in B2B For business-to-business companies, it makes sense to begin with a product or service offer that has real, free value to prospects. Examples: an e-mailed newsletter that can easily be forwarded to colleagues, or a product that comes with an incentive, such as gift certificates or coupons, sent via e-mail, which can be passed along to more than one person. Viral marketing can work effective for B2B providers, since the following is true. One very significant effort of viral marketing is to allow others to post articles that you have authored on their Web sites (Lau and NG, 2001). Another way to encourage visitors to spread the word about your product or service is to provide a link or button on each Web page that they can click on to forward your wed site (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). While some people may use "viral marketing" only as buzzwords, there is another significance for B2B marketers. Companies can encourage satisfied customers and referral sources in a credible way and persuade them to spread the positive words for their products. Keep the reward combined with your business and appropriate for the size and type of referral. Ensure that your offer adds value or reward for the referrer and for those people that are referred to you, and then you will have a cost-effective marketing tool to grow your business (Herr, Kardes and Kim, 1999). 2.6.4 Factors Motivating Viral Marketing According to Chen, Iyer and Padmanabhan (2002), viral marketing involves two parties: the communicator and the receiver. Viral marketing will only start when the communicator is motivated to speak and the receiver is motivated to listen. Therefore, in order to understand how the process works, it is very important that understand the inherent motives. In the case of the receiver, motivation to listen may be affected by: (a) source reliability (Blodgett, Granbois and Walters, 1998); (b) interpersonal ties between the sender and receiver (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001); (c)product and purchasing situation characteristics such as high perceived risk (Bristor, 1990), newness, .and intangibility associated with services (Weinberger and Lepkowska-White, 2000); and (d) situational factors such as conditions where product information may be hard or impossible to get from the marketer, or where there is a shortage of time. In the case of the communicator, motivation to speak may be influenced by: (a) the personality of the communicator, for example, self-confidence (Bristor, 1990) and sociability (Richins, 1999); (b) the attitudes of the communicator, for example, a desire to help others (Lau and NG, 2001) and attitude towards complaining (Singh, 1990); (c) involvement with the product and with the purchase decision (Henning-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler, 2004); and (d) situational factors like “proximity of others during dissatisfaction” (Lau and NG, 2001). Viral marketing has quickly been recognized by many companies because of many successful examples: Marketers proved that a little budget they could motivate millions customers. They did so by encourage customer-to-customer communication to increase sales, brand awareness, and market share. Seth Godi uploads his ebook on the internet and the people can download for free and has the right to send to their friends. If they like, they can buy a print copy. Only three months, nearly one million people download the e-book. (Source from Tafe, 2007) Receivers getting a marketing message from familiar communicators participate more frequently in a campaign as initial contacts. Because the personal message which come from friends or people you know would be more credible than that coming directly from the self-interest advertiser (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). Taking advantage of the inherent nature of internet as communication vehicles viral marketing enables consumers to share information and content within their social network easier and faster, there are without time and location limitation for internet communications (Naylor and Kleiser, 2000). Money incentive can works very effective when a viral marketing not clever and attractive enough for customers. Give referrers a reward can encourage fast spread of the marketing information. Those people who pass on your information can get something in return can encourage their passion to pass on the information. That something may be a gift or service related to your business or simply the knowledge that they have added value for others. 2.7 Measuring Success and Effective Many authors argue that what is a successful campaign? Can it based on the amount of number of people who positively interact with the campaign’s content or the sales created by the campaign? Although no a single measurement system has build up for viral marketing, measurement tools do exist, allow the markers use to tracking the process and effects of viral marketing. It is hard to know whether audiences care about the contents behind the campaigns, what ensure about the marketers maybe how many people see the campaign (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). Shirky (2000) believed that viral marketing not always effective as it also have many disadvantages, and many situations would make it fail. The difference between a successful and unsuccessful viral marketing campaign is the campaign’s ability to connect with audiences and persuade them to pass on the message and ultimately the product or service (Kirby, 2006, p.92). Kirby (2006) recognizes that in order to increase the chances of a successful viral campaign many companies are starting to invest more into the planning and implementation of it. Freedman(2006) also believed that although many authors think that viral marketing can use a little budget to make a huge effect for a small company, the majority of the successful viral campaigns are rely on multimillion-dollar budgets. 2.8 Viral Marketing Launching Base on the positive and negative effects of viral marketing, how to make good use of it has become vital. A company can not make good use of a strategy unless it knows well that how the strategy works. The following area will focus on the operation of viral marketing and what a company should take care of when using it. 2.8.1 Dangers after Launch 1. Control Once viral marketing is released, it can not control by marketers, unlike television or print advertising. There is no guarantee viral marketing work or not when it starts, companies should be prepared to lost control of the message half way down the track (Ellison, 2006, p.32). It is believed that consumers are the controller of the marketing communications as millions of consumers talking about products on internet or via emails (Allard, 2006. p.204). This view was support by Freedman (2006, p. 82) who suggested that the era that marketers control marketing message expand was gone. It also found that the cost of last market coverage is a near total loss of control over the company's marketing message and brand because of eager consumers indiscriminately spam (Naylor and Kleiser, 2000). Viral marketing to be consider as an art by marketers because it does not allow for a high level of control, it need enough freedom and right to do the things by itself. 2. Viral Hijacking Although viral marketing can make good use of consumers to expand a company’s brand and products, there still have many people who are “antibrand” on the internet, and they would catch the possible chances to turn viral marketing campaign against companies (Viral Challenge, 2005). Sandoval (2006) believed that if the campaigns were hijacked, spreading messages would have negative effects to a company’s brand and products. 3. Spam Spam is “unsolicited email usually bulk mailed and untargeted” (Chaffey, Mayer, Johnston and Ellis-Chadwick, 2003). If the spam comes from companies, generally, receivers would delete it before open. Customers do not like to bother and waste time to see these emails. However, if the marketing emails send by friends or people who receivers know, it seems no longer spam. An email come from your friends seems to be reliable. Viral marketing use friends to “spam” friends were considered working base on this reason. This view was supported by Chaffey et al. (2003), they argued that “spam does not mean that e-mail can not be used as a marketing tool”. It seems that when a promotion starts to viral and use friends to spam friends, the emails being seen as spam are very low. 4. Privacy People do not like to receive the emails that without their permission. Some companies buy many email address in order to expand marketing information. People would feel very unhappy that the junk mails keep going into their email box. Thomas (2004) states that these actions violating the receivers’ privacy. No one likes junk mails to offend their privacy. If use friends to friends emails, can avoid this problem. At the beginning of usage, viral marketing should take care of this. 5. Fake Viral Adverts Fake viral adverts are quite similar to viral hijacking. They are creating fake viral adverts when individuals un-associated with the targeted brand. This problem cause by the companies use the fake content, which they had no part in, it has the potential to destroy their brand (Graft, 2006). Sony’s promotion about its playstation is a good example of fake viral adverts. Base on these dangers after viral marketing launch, the viral marketing operation should be very careful. The things that a company need to do and avoid when they using viral marketing will be illustrated in the following parts. 2.8.2 Things should do 1. Supply customers with the right information to serve as your advocate. They cannot just be satisfied, they need to be informed about your value proposition—how you stack up against the competition—so they can tell others about you(Weinberger and Lepkowska-White, 2000). 2. Segment your customers and do small viral campaign tests on a targeted audience to find a scientific basis for what works best. Test your customers to see what they feel compelling; what promotion drives them to click-through or to pass along the message (Lau and NG, 2001). 3. Make good use of contests and promotions, especially in the B2C area. This will give consumers an incentive to pass along information about your Web site or products (Lau and NG, 2001). 4. Make your approach to be systematic. A viral campaign is a marketing strategy that should be integrated into your company's overall approach to marketing, not a one-time thing (Kirby, 2006). 5. Know well about your target audience. Take the time to learn what they like, do not like, and how they communicate (Bansal and Voyer, 2000). Such as the chat rooms of Myspace, it collect the users’ suggestions and supply what they want (Diving into the MySpace Pool, 2006). 6. Set up exit barriers. Collect all your customers’ information and make them easy to buy from you. Make it painful for your customers to leave. Maybe they have developed friends in a chat room on the site, or maybe they have loyalty to products or services (Modzelewski, 2000). For example, Myspace makes the users feel that they are belong to here, their friends also belong here, if they leave, they will no easy to contact with their friends. ( Hempel & Lehman, 2005) 7. Must being a Process Because more and more people get their own e-mail box and allow sending e-mail, viral marketing will become more important and useful. This is because online consumers will, over time, expand their social network and become to rely more on their peers to learn about and recommend new products or services (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). Therefore, viral marketing would need to become a process and cycle rather than an episodic. 2.8.3 Things need to Avoid 1. Rely on incentivizing in the long-term. In the B2B area, no company wants to be paying your users to recommend it. Better to build customer loyalty through good value, excellent service, entertainment, or an emotional attachment (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2004). 2. Fail to measure your rates of customer advocacy. Assure that you have some systems in place to measure how often customers are communicating your business' value proposition, focus on your customers and how they interact with other potential customers (Shirky, 2000). 3. Spam. Viral campaigns that offer a prize to whoever sends the most e-mails wind up looking like spam. But friends don't spam friends. People do not like to receive spam; these actions would make them angry (Naylor and Kleiser, 2000). 4. Two Common Mistakes Chen, Iyer and Padmanabhan (2002) suggested that there are two most common mistakes viral marketers like to make: (1) focusing on “formalizing the message” rather than the process” and (2) adopting a “campaign-level”, rather than an “enterprise-level”, perspective”. Formalizing the message can easy to accepted by receivers and expand it fast. While formalizing the process can hold existing customers, make them more rely on their peers to learn about a product, and then the viral marketing can keep going to expand information. A campaign-level perspective would focus on relatively unpredictable qualities, such as the customers’ perception of a service/product, or marketing message as attractive. In contrast, an enterprise-level perspective on viral marketing is informed by quantifiable and then predictable aspects of the sales cycle (Subramani and Rajagopalan, 2003). 2.8.4 Money Incentives Depending on many studies and researches on the impact of viral marketing, it is believed that the viral marketing strategy is hazily defined for most marketers but entails manipulating customer-to-customer interaction with marketing gimmickry in an attempt to achieve an exponentially growing user base (Weinberger and Lepkowska-White, 2000). Many marketers also argued that if consumers do not respond to clever marketing tactics, the cash and prize offerings will provide enough passion for consumers to spread the marketing message. Monetary incentives are considered to be necessary because they offer what seems to be the quickest and most understandable way for marketers to gain that control in the customer-to-customer communication chain (Subramani and Rajagopalan, 2003). However, monetary incentives of viral marketing can be a dangerous solution. Because monetary incentives only lead to predictable increases in market coverage and an equally predictable loss of control, but no the control that company desired. 2.9 Do Viral Marketing and Make It Success 2.9.1 Encourage C2C Advocacy Nowadays, however, marketers have had difficulty reproducing the success of a handful of viral campaigns. Even though most e-businesses are planning to launch, or have already attempted launching the viral marketing campaigns, there are still having obstacles to integrating viral marketing with the overall sales and marketing mix (Kirby, 2006). For example, viral marketing is perceived as an art rather than a science. Marketers have a hard time identifying triggers that motivate customers to pass along marketing messages to friends or colleagues. Most of marketers are planning to launch a viral marketing campaign in order to make the huge profits base on a little budget. In order to do it successfully, they must scientifically identify the elements which encourage customer-to-customer advocacy and segment their customers who are receptive to viral marketing and understand the structure of incentive packages (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2001). All viral marketing purpose is to turn customers into a sales and marketing channel. The purpose of using the customer as a new channel is to generate a fundamental tradeoff between growing market coverage and maintaining control over the marketing message. The marketer who hope to be a winner, hope to hold the success in hand finally, must encourage customers to communicate with each other with the intent of advocating products and services(Subramani and Rajagopalan, 2003). Hempel and Lehman (2005) have done a research about Myspace, they found that Myspace do a good job at C2C Advocacy. It sends emails to users which containing something interesting to them, and builds many blogs and chat rooms that people can communicate freely. Many funny video clips catch more users’ eyeballs and drive them to recommend these to their social network. However, base on Tafe’s (2007) research, even though Burger King built a wedsite where visitors can type commands into a text box, then watch a person in a chicken costume obey these commands, and this funny thing attract 224 million visit in 17 months, but this silly viral campaign hard to translate into actual sales. It seems that encourage C2C Advocacy can make a company like Myspace to be success but no the Burger King, as its viral campaign hard to translate into actual sales. 2.9.2 Initiatives of Viral Marketing Viral marketing initiatives are different depend on the purpose that companies choose to use it. However, in the degree of discipline involved in strategic planning and in the triggers they use to motivate consumers to function as a sales- and lead-generation channel: (a) Disciplined analysis and planning ensures that viral marketing is an iterative science rather than a haphazard creative art; (b) Reliance on triggers that are developed through market research and advanced analytics, rather than reliance on cash incentives, ensures that customers function as advocates rather than as "delegated spammers." (Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner, Walsh and Gremler, 2004). 2.9.3 Online Marketing Engine Furthermore, the online marketing environment must hardwire viral capabilities into its engine. Web sites must be equipped with tools that allow users who have just read an article or purchased a product to either post their opinions of the experience or forward related information to their network of friends and colleagues (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). There are many other tools that can build viral marketing capabilities into an online marketing engine, such as gift registries, gift certificates, community bulletin boards, community chat rooms, and affiliate marketing programs (Sudaraman, Mitra and Webster, 1999). Online self-service channels can also be equipped with resources such as product comparison tools to support the customer-as-sales-channel undertaking (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). 2.9.4 Six Principles and Six Succeed Rules According to the previous analysis, in order to solve the problems would face when using viral marketing and make a viral campaign success, there are six principles and six success rules of viral marketing need to focus on: Six Principles (Source from Wilson, 2000) 1. Gives away valuable products or services "Free" is the most powerful word in marketers’ dictionary. Most of viral marketing programs are give away valuable products or services to attract customers’ attentions. They choose to use free programs like free e-mail or free software download to catch the customers’ eyeballs. This can generate a groundswell of interest from customers. Catch the eyeballs can bring huge profits in the future. So they choose to give away something now and sell something in other time (Lau and NG, 2001). 2. Provides for effortless transfer to others Public health nurses offer an advice at flu season: stay away from people who cough, wash your hands often, and do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. Viruses only spread when they're easy to transmit (Weinberger and Lepkowska-White, 2000). In order to be successful, the medium that carries marketing message must be easy to transfer and replicate. Viral marketing works famously on the Internet because instant communication has become so easy and inexpensive. It can be transmitted easily and without degradation. 3. Scales easily from small to very large The transmission method which can spread like wildfire must be rapidly scalable from small to very large. If the virus multiplies only to kill the host before spreading, nothing is accomplished (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). So long as companies which use viral marketing strategy have planned ahead of time how they can make the messages pass from one customer to another faster. They must build in scalability to their viral model. 4. Exploits common motivations and behaviors Take advantage of common human motivations is what a smart viral marketing plan wants to be. Desire and greed drives people to pass and get messages. This leading to communicate produces millions of websites and e-mail messages. To be a winner, a company should design a marketing strategy that builds on common motivations and behaviors for its transmission. 5. Utilizes existing communication networks Most people are social, except the nerdy, basement-dwelling computer science grad students. Social scientists show that each person has a network of 8 to 12 people in their close network of friends, family, and associates (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2001). The broader network may consist of hundreds, or thousands of people, depending on his position in society. Network marketers have known well about the power of these human networks, both the strong, close networks and the weaker networked relationships. Place messages into existing communications between people, then you rapidly multiply its dispersion (Modzelewski, 2000). 6. Takes advantage of others' resources The most creative viral marketing plans use others' resources to get the word out (Lau and NG, 2001). Such as a news release can be picked up to form the basis of articles seen by thousands of readers. You can relaying your marketing message through make good use of others’ newsprint or wed pages. Other’s resources are depleted rather than yours. Six Succeed Rules of Viral Marketing. (Source from Rayport, 1996/1997) Rule 1: Stealth is the essence of market entry Rule 2: What's up-front is free; payment comes later Rule 3: Let the behaviors of the target community carry the message Rule 4: Look like a host, not a virus Rule 5: Exploit the strength of weak ties Rule 6: Invest to reach the tipping point 2.10 Conclusion In Iyer and Padmanabhan's opinion, the success of viral marketing is tied to three things: the nature of the industry that the company is in, the online tenure of the audience, and the topic. Some industries—entertainment, music, Internet, and software—clearly have a higher propensity for pass-along information, not to mention a target audience that tends to be Web savvy. Without a motivator, viral marketing would be a super sport car without the wheels. Viral marketing must be treated as an unstructured phenomenon. Try to control it, and you will fail. "It's an organic beast," he says. "The more you structure it and try to control it to work, the more it breaks down."(Naylor and Kleiser, 2000) Unless it smacks customers, unless it shocks them, they are not going to pass it on. If you can entertain people, they will do your marketing for you. An online marketing strategy, sales and marketing executives must consider viral marketing as an integral element of their overall strategy. While the potential of viral marketing to efficiently reach out to a broad set of potential users is attracting considerable attention, the value of this approach is also being questioned. The company needs to understand well the contexts in which this strategy works and the characteristics of products and services for which it is most effective and match wit the viral marketing strategy. This is vital because the inappropriate use of viral marketing can be counterproductive by creating unfavorable attitudes towards products or service; even make the company get loss in some situations. Viral marketing is a powerful strategy for both marketers and recipients to benefit from the helpfulness of individuals in social networks. However, success viral marketing strategy depending on the recognition of the strong need for influencers to be viewed as knowledgeable helpers in the social network rather than as agents of the marketer (Hogan, Lemon and Libai, 2004). Firms should do well to reflect on this very carefully in planning their viral marketing efforts. Even though viral marketing can cost a little money to get the huge reward, but it also would cause big problems to a company in some situations. So, it is hard to confirm that viral marketing is good or bad for a company to use. There are many examples on both sides. Done it right is vital, viral marketing is a critical element to many campaigns (Goldenberg, Libai and Muller, 2001). Whatever form you chose, remember to ask the person for the referral, rather than just hoping that they will do it on their own. So if you are attempting a viral marketing campaign, measure the efforts: Set targets for it, and take solid baseline reports before starting. And make sure the campaign is integrated with other marketing efforts. Just like a tiger, it can be tame to be a good actor to entertain people, but it also would kill people in some situation by the nature of animal. The key point is managing viral marketing strategy well and makes it match the situation of your company and products; catch your existing and potential customers’ eyeball and then stimulate their passion to purchase and advocacy your products. Base on the research of this part, it is clearly that viral marketing drive many companies to be success, like Myspace, BMW. But it also has many unsure things need to exam, such as how Burger King’s viral campaign can translate to the actual sale? How to avoid the mistake like Sony’s fake viral campaign? Does Myspace really use the viral campaign successful? only base on the second data is no enough to make the point stand, so the author decide to choose some methods to collect primary data to get more strong evidence to exam the viral marketing’s effects. These methods will list in the next part—chapter 3 methodology. 病毒式營銷 1.1病毒式營銷 這些年來,企業之間的競爭變得更加更加激烈。宋(2004)指出,許多企業為了生存甚至發展,他們試圖好好利用任何方式可以幫助他們擴大自己的市場份額,并建立一個強大的品牌。在過去十年中,傳統媒體,如電視,報紙,電臺和印刷廣告的過度使用。莫格(2006)認為,使用這些傳統的方式來宣傳產品或服務不再能刺激觀眾的熱情,有效地督促支持這一觀點。因為在一定程度上,觀眾習慣于接受這些方面的信息,他們需要新的東西,需要一個新的“味道”,他們收到的信息(莎莉,2006年)。 客戶依靠營銷的建議或廣告作出購買決定的時代過去了。欽科陶(2007)認為,只有提供的信息,你認為客戶需要的是沒有工作,沒有足夠的說服客戶,并不能滿足他們的需求,并滿足他們的。客戶已經變得足夠聰明,他們不喜歡被說服在很多情況下,營銷或宣傳廣告。他們更喜歡在購買過程中,要積極利用自己的知識和標準,以決定他們需要什么,他們樂意購買(格雷瓦爾,2008)。一個強大的品牌可以使客戶有信心在一個公司和它的產品。這種觀點似乎是可以接受的,為Fill(2005)同意建立密切與客戶的關系是至關重要的;公司盡力追求最好的營銷策略的目的是強大而盈利的。 口碑是公司推廣其產品(安德森,1999年)的有效途徑之一。 Word中的口碑(WOM)被形容為口服,一個接收器和一個接收器感知作為一個非商業性的消息傳播者的人對人之間的溝通,關于品牌,產品或服務(海伍德,1989,pp53-66) 。它可以幫助企業用更少的錢做大規模的推廣。巴特爾(1998)支持這一觀點,他認為,客戶是通過這樣的方式更容易被說服,因為他們認為這是一個非商業的方式。他們認為,他們都在積極的姿態,接受信息和做出購買決定,而不是被說服,要做到這一點。 隨著技術的演進,以及互聯網的增長,舞臺上的許多公司已經從現實世界中移動到一個新的世界互聯網(卡斯特,1997)。口碑通過互聯網升級,并得到一個新的名字“病毒式營銷”,這些年來(莫澤萊夫斯基,2000年)。 (Dicher 2001年,PP47)研究的基礎上,“病毒營銷是公司的策略來刺激他們的客戶通過他們的同事和朋友的網絡對他們的產品的東西”。病毒式營銷的公司,可以幫助公司用一個小預算大幅宣傳自己,因為你發送的信息,客戶將通過他們自己。在客戶的身邊,病毒式營銷,幫助客戶,因為他們認為他們做出購買決定自己感覺更好,他們得到的信息從他們的朋友,他們似乎更可靠的比營銷或宣傳廣告。 (旺根海姆,2007年,PP131-146) 網絡優勢,使用病毒式營銷與互聯網基礎上的促進作用可以使像核炸彈。互聯網可以使信息傳遞速度非常快,甚至超過您的期望。 Sudaraman拉賈戈帕蘭(2003)發現,因為你使用病毒式營銷來發送你的信息,才可能達到世界的每一個角落,互聯網連接,只需要幾天。互聯網似乎東西帶來的信息傳遞從“石器時代”,“二十一世紀”,它像一對翅膀信息傳遞,信息傳遞,達到令人難以置信的速度。 有效的病毒式營銷策略的考慮,決定研究病毒式營銷的效果,可以使公司本報告。作者是病毒式營銷的效果很感興趣,因為它是一個為未來業務的趨勢;公司的推廣和信息傳遞是非常有用的。要知道明確的病毒式營銷,可以幫助作者以豐富自己的營銷知識,在未來的工作或生意會有很大的幫助,甚至可以幫助這份報告的讀者了解更多關于病毒式營銷。為了使研究更加可靠,并得到準確的分析,這份報告將選擇MySpace上,一個在線公司,這似乎是成功使用病毒式營銷策略,以協助分析。 1.2 MySpace的 湯姆·安德森(1970年11月8日出生)是社交網站,MySpace的總統。他是人確定作為網站的創始人之一,隨著CEO克里斯·德沃夫(博伊德,2006年)。在開始的時候,它是一個網站,一個小數目的用戶,用來交朋友。然后,他們邀請一些著名的人加入進來,這些著名的人帶來了很多球迷英寸,因為越來越多的樂隊建立這個站上他們的網站,MySpace的越來越大,并獲得巨大的用戶數量。它從音樂結婚站開發年輕人的生活在美國的核心,然后探索世界各地(潛水到Myspace的游泳池,2006年)。它選擇給用戶足夠的自由來建立他們喜歡什么在此結婚電臺,這種自由和權利讓它如此迅速地探索。人們可以使用他們的電子郵件地址注冊成為它的用戶。 (來源從德懷爾,2007) 每個用戶都可以上傳自己喜歡的事情,比如視頻和聲音片段,圖片和很多其他的事情。 MySpace的聽他們的用戶和提高結婚電臺,想增加博客,留言板,討論室和在線通訊。用戶可以談他們的朋友,一起玩游戲,甚至可以用結婚的攝像頭,以滿足對方,當他們談論。(源博伊德,2006)這三站可以讓用戶在它覺得如此自由,他們可以談論他們喜歡什么他們的朋友在這里。因此,用戶在MySpace上邀請他們的朋友加入到2006年MySpace的游泳池,跳水。 以這樣的方式,MySpace上達到了巨大的成功。直到2006年,MySpace的只設置了三年,但其發展速度快于任何結婚站的歷史,它是互聯網發展史上的一個神話。它已經超越雅虎和谷歌是在美國最大的結婚站。它成立一個非常小的成本,但在2005年,魯珀特·默多克,新聞集團的CEO,用580萬美元來買它。一年后購買,它從谷歌獲得900萬美元的廣告費。 (Hempel和雷曼來源,2005年) 它似乎,MySpace的真的是一個成功的例子,很好地利用病毒式營銷策略,,本報告為什么選擇英國MySpace的案例研究,以協助研究和分析。 1.3研究目標 了。檢查病毒式營銷的效果,可以使一個公司,聯營公司與英國MySpace的案例研究----- 二。訪問客戶的態度和反應,病毒式營銷,通過一級和二級數據分析 三。找出最后一個公司的成功的病毒式營銷的效果。 第2章文獻綜述 2.1病毒式營銷的背景和發展 營銷是一個社會過程,滿足消費者的需求。該術語包括產品或服務的廣告,分銷及銷售。委員會還關切地預測客戶未來的需求和期望,往往是通過市場的研究(Frenzen和中元,1993)。支持這一觀點的尤金(1998)認為,營銷是概念規劃和執行的過程中,定價,推廣及分銷思想,商品和服務,以創建滿足個人和組織目標的交換。 帕梅拉(2000)指出,傳統的營銷是營銷技巧,使用多年,它主要是利用媒介,如電視,報紙,電話和收音機。如今,有許多新的技術,用來取代傳統媒體做促銷:互聯網,多媒體手機,博客和等。這些新的媒介,可以幫助營銷達到更多的客戶,降低成本。 支持這一觀點Wegert(2004)認為,傳統媒體不工作之前,他們讓許多觀眾感到枯燥和許多優惠,他們不喜歡什么。客戶希望看到的東西,新的和舒緩,​​真正使它們變得有趣和快樂,所以,新的媒介,可能有效的工作,并能抓住他們的眼球(安德森,1998,pp104-141)。 這些年來,越來越多的人喜歡在互聯網上沖浪(旺根海姆,2007年)。這種情況導致許多營銷重點在互聯網上推廣自己的產品和服務。特別是,年輕人更喜歡使用互聯網對傳統媒體。對于公司未來的發展,現在的年輕人,可以讓他們得到一個大的市場份額在未來(Bayus,1985)。因此,要好好利用互聯網做推廣是至關重要的許多公司,尤其是公司依靠互聯網做生意。 使用互聯網作為廣告媒介有許多優點:消息可以改變快速,輕松地創建自己的頁面便宜;成本低;直銷可能等(麥克威廉斯,2000)。它的優點的基礎上,越來越多的企業選擇使用互聯網做宣傳廣告。幾個主要的網上推廣技術是公認的營銷研究者,病毒營銷將是本研究的重點,因為它可以在很短的時間內以較低的成本達到大眾消費者。 2.2從口碑病毒式營銷 在過去的十年中,客戶滿意度和感知服務質量一直在營銷文獻的重要課題。這是因為經驗證實信念,提高滿意度和質量最終會導致更高的盈利能力(旺根海姆,2007年)。然而在過去的10年中滿意度和質量研究的重點已經慢慢轉向如何從理解“服務質量感知和滿意度的判斷”形成更多的“成果為導向”的服務質量和滿意度的基礎上評估的回報透徹理解相關的成本和收益(巴特爾,1998年,PP76-89)。 被稱為“病毒式營銷”的策略被許多公司所采用,以追求利潤。 “病毒式營銷”出現之前,以這種方式稱為“口碑”的營銷策略。海伍德(1989)認為,字的口碑(WOM)是指口服,一個接收器和一個接收器感知作為一個非商業性的消息傳播者的人對人之間的溝通,對于品牌,產品或服務。 即使口碑戰略可以帶來巨大的利益,一個公司,使用技術的發展已經升級到一個新的呼叫“病毒式營銷”(Richins,1999)字嘴戰略。這些年來,固定互聯網消費者的溝通環境已經改變和充實。作為一個結果口碑已經獲得了新的意義和固定互聯網上的口碑被稱為“病毒式營銷”。 由戈德斯Mayzlin的(2004)支持這一觀點,病毒或字的口碑營銷已經變得非常流行,因為它有一種新的媒介 - 互聯網。根據一個創投公司,76%的新業務計劃的話(文件,Čermak和王子,2000年)“病毒式營銷”。使用電子郵件,使得它非常容易將信息傳遞給朋友或同事,尤其是當它涉及到一些有趣的東西或免費。利用互聯網在世界各地數以百萬計,指數增長的潛力是相當巨大的。 2.3什么是病毒式營銷 由于長期的病毒式營銷在1997年推出,存在許多分歧,關于它的定義。 SUBRAMANI拉賈戈帕蘭(2003)查看它告訴其他消費者對產品或服務的消費者的口碑廣告詞。楊和艾倫比(2003)認為,真正的病毒式營銷從字口的價值的病毒到原來的消費者有直接關系的其他用戶的數量,它吸引不同。舍基(2000)認為,一般來說,病毒式營銷,將字的口碑廣告對大多數人來說。然而更重要的是,他補充說,這個概念所描述的病毒式營銷,為鼓勵消費者之間真誠的溝通,獲得新客戶的一種方式。每一個分支的病毒的鼻祖到網絡招聘的人有一個獨特的和既得利益。 (莫澤萊夫斯基,2000年,第30頁)。 據到Senecal Acques(2004年)的建議,采購是一個社會過程的一部分,它涉及到一公司和客戶之間的互動,許多人誰環繞的客戶信息和影響力之間的交流。他們還認為,許多有效的網絡包括集線器,集群和集群之間的連接。在這些網絡中,人們會注意到某些節點之間的綠色火花不斷流動的。 威爾遜(2000)表示,病毒營銷是這次爆炸您從一個顧客,他/她會告訴人們,并通過連續的排序。迪希特(2001,P47)認為,“病毒式營銷的想法,你煽動你的客戶或轉介來源的同事和朋友到他們的網絡傳遞一些關于您的業務”。有一個類似的說,病毒性營銷描述的任何策略,鼓勵客戶營銷信息傳遞給別人,創建消息的曝光和的影響(Hogon,檸檬和李白,2004年)的指數級增長的潛力。 Nalor(2002)聲稱,病毒式營銷是一種營銷策略,依靠某些方面的制度,以促進自身作為初始目標通過推廣給別人。 大多依賴,在Hogon,檸檬和李白的觀點,當前文章認為,病毒營銷的過程中鼓勵消費者網絡之間真誠的溝通,它側重于電子郵件的主渠道作用。 病毒式營銷的一個例子是鼓勵現有的​​和潛在的客戶告訴別人公司的產品和服務,然后鼓勵那些別人告訴更多的消費者,使信息不斷前進(SUBRAMANI拉賈戈帕蘭,2003年)。這些戰略像病毒一樣,可以利用爆炸的消息,數千甚至數以百萬計的客戶在很短的時間內快速繁殖。 “病毒式營銷的術語也被用來指隱形營銷活動使用在線和離線astroturfing自發字口的熱情”(圖勞的Hennig,格溫納,沃爾什和Gremler,2004年創建的印象多樣, 95頁)。在互聯網上,病毒營銷已描述為“口口相傳”,“創造一個時髦”,“利用媒體”,“網絡營銷”。然而,在互聯網上,無論它被稱為“病毒式營銷”(頭盔,2000年,頁57-71)。 達塔·喬杜里和查克拉博蒂(2005)使用的術語“增強網絡口碑”來形容當時的免費電子郵件服務Hotmail的創新營銷策略。換句話說,這樣的條款被用來作為傳播,聚集或有機的營銷。成功的病毒式營銷“策略允許通過創建一個自我復制,成倍增加的擴散,精神文明,影響的消息”的環境更容易,加速,成本降低的消息傳輸。 (霍根,檸檬和李白,2001年) 2.4。病毒式營銷的形式和分類 2.4.1表格 病毒式營銷的形式有很多,其中包括圖片,笑話,電視真人秀的成績單,數字視頻剪輯,電子賀卡,互動微型網站,廣告游戲,替代現實游戲(莫澤萊夫斯基,2000年)。這份名單是不斷增長的病毒式營銷的發展。 2.4.2分類 有幾種方法進行分類,病毒式營銷。首先,“有意和無意的消息”的交付和使用一個“動機分類”之間的差異。高中,區別在于“基于服務和激勵”。在第一種情況,病毒的作用決定由要約的質量,另一個是指該公司使用貨幣刺激顧客的激勵,使他們對廣告的消息傳遞。建議私人和公共之間的差異的基礎上,“高(主動)和低(被動)整合策略之間的分類是不同需要消費者的活動,通過”病毒“”的程度。 (來源從登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年,第209-257頁) 2.5病毒式營銷在B2B 旁邊說明B2C的病毒式營銷的基礎上,許多學者得到另一個類似的定義B2B側。 在B2B,病毒營銷是指一個新的產品或服務有關的消息迅速蔓延,以類似的方式傳播的病毒(楊和艾倫比,2003年)。病毒性營銷的口碑,但是,它是特別常見的是在互聯網上使用,其中的消息可以輕松,快速地傳播到世界各地達人。產品可以成為非常著名的以這種方式,用很少的廣告費用。 Carrabis(2006)已經證明,依靠社交網絡上的病毒式營銷,以功能。鏈接也是一種有效的病毒營銷工具,是提供免費的產品或服務。 Hotmail的免費電子郵件服務,例如,快速增長與營銷投入小(TAFE,2007)。 在B2B領域中,在下列情況下病毒式營銷工作:(一)當一個產品是真正的新的和不同的,它是意見領袖要與(b)在產品的優點是真實的( c)如果該產品相關的大量的人,帶來的好處是容易溝通(Bansal和Voyer的類,2000,P26-63)。 2.6為什么病毒式營銷 這些年來,在線社交網絡越來越多地被視為一個重要的信息來源,影響采納和使用的產品和服務(MAC,2006年)。病毒式營銷作為創建過程中,有興趣的人可以推銷給對方的戰術,因此,新興的傳播字的一個重要的營銷策略,以刺激試驗,采用和使用的產品和服務。 (杜林,K​​ardes和Kim,1999) 什么是新的病毒式營銷是不是口口相傳,但人們正在將其傳播“(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004)。網絡用戶有數百,甚至數千人的耳朵和眼睛。他們在國際人群的接觸,否則他們絕不會滿足。最重要的是,他們可以達到人,他們真的不知道。這就是為什么幾個星期后,一個人發出的第一Hotmail郵件到印度,成千上萬的印度用戶有Hotmail帳戶(的Kuruvilla,2007年)。 據認為,一個滿意的顧客講述了一個有關產品或服務,他喜歡的人,九人關于產品或服務的平均,這是他的好惡(Sudaraman,米特拉和韋伯斯特,1999年)。病毒式營銷是基于這種自然的人類行為進行的活動。 多明戈斯(2006)認為,有興趣做一個成功的病毒營銷活動的營銷的目的是要找出誰與高社交網絡的潛力,然后創造了病毒信息,可以吸引這部分客戶,并有可能保持高的客戶消息傳播。 病毒性營銷學者和從業者已受到廣泛關注,從這些年(Jurvetson公司,2000年)。之前分析的基礎上,許多作家形成自己的觀點,病毒營銷策略,可以為公司帶來的影響。他們認為與其他作者的意見基礎上自己的立場。 2.6.1病毒式營銷的積極作用 病毒式營銷有利于傳播商業信息和內容所需的目標組內(霍根,檸檬和李白,2001))。它的另一個優點是,廣告主可以在一個非常低的費用由公司負責(貝克,2005年)顯著擴大推廣達到。據杜瀚,約翰遜,威爾考克斯和哈勒爾(1997)的調查,在3000名受訪者中的35%表示,朋友的推薦下,說服他們訪問一個網站之前,他們不知道。這些結果說明了病毒式營銷的巨大潛力,溝通及分銷的目的。 病毒式營銷是偉大的,它成本低,本身幾乎。一旦你做出的報價,并提供設備,轉介,病毒營銷本身傳播非常快,就像一個病毒(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)。就像TAFE(2007)表示,Hotmail的,只花了18個月獲得1200萬用戶,通過使用病毒式營銷,讓用戶轉診使用者,它的成本做的廣告無關,只使用免費電子郵件帳戶。 病毒式營銷已經研究作為輸入進入消費決策,購買過程的結果(福爾摩斯和字母,1997)。在購買前的階段,作為降低風險的策略,消費者尋求的產品信息病毒式營銷過程中通過參與。正面和負面的消息是消費者在服務遭遇的結論((霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)或使用一個產品(奈勒和克萊澤,2000)展出的出口行為的例子。 安德森(1998年)指出,病毒式營銷“影響消費者選擇和購買決策,和形狀消費者的期望,使用前態度,甚至后期使用的產品或服務的看法”。據認為,病毒式營銷的影響遠遠大于經典廣告媒體(Gremler,格溫納和布朗,2001年)。寶馬是一個很好的例子,它提供5個視頻短片免費觀看和下載,然后克服在4個月內11萬人次。寶馬車的銷售增加12.5%,在明年(Hespos,2002)。它似乎視頻剪輯和互聯網可以有效地使病毒營銷工作。 被稱為病毒式營銷的產品相關的談話,個人建議,非正式的溝通和人際溝通(雅各,巴拉克和穆勒,2001年)。病毒式營銷活動和商業的大眾傳播之間有一個很大的區別。病毒營銷是一種以消費者為主導的信息渠道,溝通被認為是獨立的營銷(劉和NG,2001)。因此,它被客戶所認可,作為一個更可靠的,可信的,值得信賴的信息來源。它提供的信息,對產品的性能和奈勒和克萊澤購買決定(2000)的社會和心理后果。例如,MySpace的使用病毒式營銷,使用戶轉介本身,并做出了很大的成功(德威爾,2007年)。 病毒式營銷可以將低階認知,并影響到高階認知和影響,這反過來又可以導致承諾行為接收機,(貝克,2005年)。病毒式營銷的信譽,加上一個接收器將更加高度參與一個比一個廣告病毒式營銷信息的概率,本身的高階信念和認知的形成。通過多個連桿和重傳,一個消息可以達到和潛在的影響,許多接收機(亨寧·圖勞,格溫納,沃爾什和Gremler,2004)。善用客戶的互聯網社交網絡,就像使用免費的電子郵件轉介和互聯網聊天室,信息可以大幅蔓延(多明戈斯,2006年)。 病毒性營銷的效果也可以解釋的輔助診斷性模型(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)。一些研究結果表明,生動地(臉對臉)介紹更令人難忘的是給客戶和稱重更依賴自己的判斷(亨寧·圖勞,格溫納,沃爾什和Gremler,2004)。如MySpace,它使用的聊天室通過電腦攝像頭,用戶可以到對方,甚至面臨到面對面交談,那么它的信息變得更加可靠和令人難忘的用戶(博伊德,2006年)。由于互聯網,信息的無障礙設施的增加,它是高可能使用此信息由客戶輸入自己的判斷和選擇也隨之增加(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)。 2.6.2病毒式營銷的負面影響 病毒式營銷對于所有的優點,也有許多意想不到的陷阱。最重要的是,公司有病毒的傳播幾乎沒有控制權,因為它被發送出去,因此,他們可以做什么,如果病毒輪流對他們和他們的產品(Jurvetson公司,2000年)。 “通過消費者不滿意購買或拒絕或終止使用某產品的報道最頻繁的動作告訴朋友的經驗,并敦促他們避免它”(Weinberger和白Lepkowska,2000)。許多研究人員認為,負面信息往往引起諸多關注和加權,的信息(Bristor,1990)。例如,奈勒克萊澤(2000)發現,負面信息摧毀一個品牌的形象是積極的口碑促進銷售該產品的兩倍以上強烈。負面消息也導致了許多公司的推廣失敗。威爾遜(2000)認為,負面消息比正面訊息傳達給更多的人。據有關市場營銷信息傳播的多以前的證據,建議,負面的消息可能比一個積極的信息通過重發更遠。在以前的研究中,影響者經常考慮到的意見領袖。然而,一個不滿意的客戶誰發起的負面消息不必是一個意見領袖,但他的意見(Richins,1999)營銷可以產生不利影響。例如,索尼嘗試使用YouTube,以促進其PlayStation游戲機,它創造了一個虛構的人物叫彼得,并試圖使字符作為嘻哈鯊魚。然而,一些聰明的用戶很快就發現詭計,并告訴其他許多。然后angary SONY做什么,很多人拒絕購買PlayStation游戲機。最終,索尼不得不做出公開道歉高興和保持客戶。 (來源的Kuruvilla,2007) 2.6.3病毒式營銷在B2B的影響 對于企業對企業的公司,它是有道理的,開始的產品或提供的服務,有真實的,自由的價值前景。例如:發送一封電子郵件通訊,可以方便地轉發給同事,或產品自帶的誘因,如禮品券或優惠券,通過e-mail,可以傳遞給不止一個人。 病毒性營銷可以有效的B2B供應商,因為下面是真實的。病毒式營銷是一個非常顯著的努力讓別人發表在其網站上(劉NG,2001)撰寫的文章,您。另一種方式來鼓勵游客流傳著一句話對你的產品或服務是提供每個網頁上的鏈接或按鈕,他們可以按一下轉發結婚網站(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001)。 雖然有些人可能會使用“病毒式營銷”,僅作為流行語,是另一種意義的B2B營銷。公司可以以可信的方式鼓勵顧客滿意和轉介來源,并說服他們傳播積極的言辭為自己的產品。保持與您的業務和適合的大小和類型的轉介相結合的獎勵。確保你的出價增加值或獎勵引薦,稱你為那些人,那么你將有一個成本有效的營銷工具,拓展您的業務(杜林,K​​ardes和Kim,1999)。 2.6.4病毒式營銷的激勵因素 據陳,艾耶和帕德馬納班(2002年),病毒營銷涉及兩方:傳播者和接收者。病毒性營銷傳播者,積極發言時,才開始聽的動機和接收器。因此,為了理解這個過程是如何工作的,它是非常重要的,了解的內在動機。 在接收器的情況下,聽的動機可能受到影響:(一)(二)來源的可靠性(布洛杰特,Granbois旅游和沃爾特斯,1998年);人際關系之間的發送者和接收者(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年); (三)產品和采購形勢的特點,如高知覺的風險(Bristor,1990),新奇,和無形服務(Weinberger和Lepkowska白,2000年);及(d)條件下的產品信息,如情境因素很難或不可能得到的營銷,或哪里有時間短缺。 在傳播者的情況下,可能會影響說話的動機:(一)個性的溝通,例如,自信(Bristor,1990)和社交(Richins,1999年);(B)的態度,傳播者,例如,渴望幫助他人(劉和NG,2001年)和抱怨的態度(辛格,1990),(三)參與與產品購買決策(亨寧圖勞,格溫納,沃爾什和Gremler 2004)及(d)接近他人“不滿”(劉和NG,2001)等情境因素。 病毒式營銷已經迅速被許多企業的認可,因為很多成功的例子證明:營銷,一點點預算,他們可以激勵數百萬客戶。他們這樣做是鼓勵客戶到客戶的溝通,以增加銷售,品牌知名度和市場占有率。賽斯戈林上傳自己的電子書在互聯網上,人們可以免費下載,并有權發送給他們的朋友。如果他們愿意,他們可以購買一個打印副本。僅3個月,近百萬人次下載的電子書。 (從2007年TAFE,來源) 營銷信息的接收器從熟悉的傳播者更頻繁地參與競選初步接觸。因為來自朋友或你認識的人的個人信息將直接來自自身利益的廣告(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年)更可信。趁著互聯網的內在本質,通訊工具的病毒式營銷,使消費者能夠在他們的社交網絡分享信息和內容更容易和更快,有奈勒和克萊澤,互聯網通訊(2000)沒有時間和地點的限制。 金錢激勵可以非常有效的病毒營銷時,不聰明,有足夠的吸引力,為客戶。給引薦獎勵可以鼓勵的營銷信息的快速傳播。這些人誰對您的信息傳遞,可以得到一些回報,鼓勵他們在信息傳遞上的激情。這東西可能是您的業務或簡單的知識,他們已增值為別人的禮物或服務有關。 2.7測量成功和有效 許多學者認為,什么是一次成功的競選?它的基礎上良性互動活動的內容或銷售運動創建人數量? 病毒式營銷雖然沒有一個單一的測量系統已經建立,測量工具確實存在,允許標記使用的過程跟蹤和病毒式營銷的效果。這是很難知道觀眾是否在意活動背后的內容,確保營銷也許多少人看到活動(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年)。 舍基(2000)認為,病毒式營銷并不總是有效的,因為它也有很多缺點,很多情況下會使其失敗。一個成功的和不成功的病毒營銷活動之間的區別是運動的能力,與觀眾連接,并說服他們傳遞消息,最終的產品或服務(柯比,2006年,第92頁)。 柯比(2006年)認識到,為了增加成功的機會,一個成功的病毒活動,許多企業都開始投入更多的規劃和實施。弗里德曼(2006)也認為,雖然許多學者認為成功的病毒式營銷,病毒式營銷可以使用一個小的預算,做出了巨大的影響,一家小公司,大多數是依賴于數百萬美元的預算。 2.8病毒式營銷啟動 病毒式營銷,如何好好利用它已成為重要的正面和負面影響的基礎上。一個公司可以不好好利用的戰略,除非它知道如何的戰略工程。下列區域將集中在病毒式營銷的操作,哪一家公司應該照顧的時候使用它。 2.8.1危險后啟動 1。控制 一旦被釋放的病毒式營銷,它無法控制營銷,不像電視或印刷廣告。是無擔保病毒營銷工作或當它啟動時,企業應準備走下賽場的消息半路上失去了控制(埃里森,2006年,第32頁)。 據認為,消費者的營銷通信控制器,數以百萬計消費者談論產品在互聯網上或通過電子郵件(阿拉德,2006年,第204頁)。這種觀點是支持建議的時代,營銷控制營銷信息擴大不見了弗里德曼(2006年,第82頁)。 研究還發現,該公司的營銷信息和品牌,因為躍躍欲試的消費者不分青紅皂白地垃圾(勒和克萊澤,2000)的控制權,最后的市場覆蓋面的成本是一個近乎完全喪失。病毒性營銷要考慮營銷作為一種藝術,因為它不允許高水平的控制,它需要足夠的自由和權利本身做的事情。 2。病毒劫持 雖然病毒式營銷可以讓消費者良好的使用,以擴大公司的品牌和產品,仍然有許多人是互聯網上“antibrand”誰,以及他們會趕上可能的機會來打開病毒營銷活動對企業(病毒攻擊,2005 )。 桑多瓦爾(2006)認為,如果被劫持的運動,傳播消息將公司的品牌和產品產生負面影響。 3。垃圾 垃圾是“不請自來的電子郵件通常批量郵寄和不相關的”(查費,邁耶,約翰斯頓和埃利斯,查德維克,2003年)。如果垃圾郵件來自公司,一般,接收器會刪除之前開放。客戶不喜歡麻煩和浪費時間看這些郵件。 然而,如果朋友或接收者預先知道誰的人發送電子郵件營銷,它似乎不再是垃圾郵件。來自你的朋友的電子郵件似乎是可靠的。使用病毒式營銷“垃圾郵件”朋友的朋友被認為是這個原因的工作基礎上。查菲等人支持這一觀點。 (2003年),他們認為,“垃圾郵件并不意味著不能使用電子郵件作為一種營銷手段”。 這似乎促銷活動時,開始使用病毒和垃圾郵件的朋友的朋友,被看作是垃圾郵件的電子郵件是非常低的。 4。隱私 人們不喜歡接收電子郵件,在未經其許可。有些公司買很多的電子郵件地址,以擴大營銷信息。人們會覺得很不爽,垃圾郵件繼續進入自己的電子郵箱。托馬斯(2004)指出,這些行為違反了接收器的隱私。沒有人喜歡垃圾郵件得罪了他們的隱私。 如果使用的朋友的朋友的郵件,可避免這個問題。在使用開始,病毒營銷應該照顧這個。 5。假病毒廣告 假病毒廣告頗為相似,病毒劫持。他們正在創造假病毒廣告相關的個人與有針對性的品牌。公司使用假的內容,這是他們沒有參與這個問題的原因,它有可能破壞自己的品牌(接枝,2006年)。索尼的推廣關于其PlayStation假病毒廣告是一個很好的例子。 這些危險的病毒式營銷推出后,病毒式營銷的操作應該非常小心。一家公司的事情,需要做的,并避免使用病毒式營銷時,他們將在以下部分說明。 2.8.2事情應該做的 1。供應客戶提供正確的信息作為你的倡導者。他們不能只是滿足,他們需要了解你的價值主張,你怎么堆起來反對的競爭,這樣他們就可以告訴別人你(Weinberger和白Lepkowska,2000)。 2。分類您的客戶和有針對性的觀眾找到了科學依據什么效果最好做小病毒活動測試。測試你的客戶,看看他們感到引人注目;什么推廣驅使他們點擊或傳遞消息(劉和NG,2001)。 3。善用競賽和促銷活動,特別是在B2C領域。這會給消費者一種激勵你的網站或產品(劉和NG,2001)來傳遞信息。 4。使你的方法是系統性的。病毒活動是一種營銷策略,應納入公司的整體營銷方式,而不是一次性的事情(柯比,2006年)。 5。熟悉了解你的目標受眾。花時間了解他們喜歡什么,不喜歡,他們是如何溝通(Bansal和Voyer 2000)。比如MySpace的聊天室,它收集用戶的建議,并提供他們想要的東西(到2006年MySpace的游泳池,跳水)。 6。設置退出壁壘。收集所有客戶的信息,使他們很容易從你買的。讓它為您的客戶留下痛苦。也許他們已經開發出了一個聊天室的朋友在網站上,或者也許他們的產品或服務的忠誠度(莫澤萊夫斯基,2000年)。例如,MySpace的讓用戶覺得自己是屬于這里,他們的朋友也屬于這里,如果他們離開,他們會不容易的,與他們的朋友聯系。 (Hempel集團與雷曼兄弟,2005年) 7。必須是一個過程 因為越來越多的人得到自己的電子信箱,并允許發送電子郵件,病毒營銷將變得更加重要和有益的。這是因為網上消費者將隨著時間的推移,擴大自己的社交網絡,并成為更多地依靠他們的同齡人了解和推薦新的產品或服務(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年)。因此,病毒營銷需要成為一個過程和周期,而不是​​一個偶發。 2.8.3事情需要避免 1。依靠長期激勵。在B2B領域,沒有一家公司愿意支付您的用戶推薦。更好的建立客戶忠誠度,通過良好的價值,優良的服務,娛樂,或感情(登堡,李白和穆勒,2004年)。 2。失敗來衡量你的客戶宣傳。保證你有一些系統來衡量多久客戶通信業務的價值主張,專注于您的客戶和它們如何相互作用與其他潛在客戶(Shirky的,2000年)。 3。垃圾郵件。病毒活動,提供獎品的人看起來像垃圾郵件,發送電子郵件的風力可達。但是,朋友做的不是垃圾郵件的朋友。人們不喜歡收到垃圾郵件,這些行動使他們生氣(奈勒和克萊澤,2000)。 4。兩種常見的誤區 陳艾耶和帕德馬納班(2002年)提出,有兩個喜歡做病毒營銷的最常見的錯誤:(1)圍繞“正式消息”,而不是過程“和(2)采用”運動級“,而比“企業級”,透視“。 正式消息可以輕松接收器所接受,并快速擴大。雖然正式的過程,可以容納現有的客戶,使他們更依賴于他們的同齡人了解的產品,然后病毒營銷可以繼續將擴大信息。 一項運動水平的角度來看,將側重于相對不可預測的特質,如客戶感知的服務/產品,或有吸引力的營銷信息。相反,病毒式營銷的角度對企業級獲悉量化,然后預測方面的銷售周期(SUBRAMANI拉賈戈帕蘭,2003年)。 2.8.4積分獎勵 根據許多研究和病毒式營銷的影響的研究,它被認為是靄靄定義對于大多數營銷病毒式營銷策略,但需要操縱客戶到客戶互動營銷伎倆,企圖實現成倍增長的用戶群( Weinberger和Lepkowska白,2000年)。許多營銷人員也認為,如果消費者不回應巧妙的營銷策略,現金及獲獎產品將提供足夠的熱情,為消費者傳播營銷信息。 貨幣激勵被認為是必要的,因為它們提供了什么似乎是最快和最容易理解的方式為營銷客戶到客戶通信的鏈(SUBRAMANI拉賈戈帕蘭,2003年)獲得控制。然而,貨幣獎勵可能是一個危險的病毒式營銷的解決方案。因為金錢獎勵只會導致的市場覆蓋面,同樣可預見的損失控制在可預見的增加,但無控制該公司所需。 2.9做病毒式營銷,并使其成功 2.9.1鼓勵C2C宣傳 然而,如今的營銷已經很難再現了一把成功的病毒式營銷。盡管大多數電子商務企業都計劃推出或已經嘗試開展病毒式營銷活動,也有仍然有障礙,把病毒式營銷的整體銷售和市場營銷組合(柯比,2006年)。例如,病毒式營銷被視為一門藝術,而不是一門科學。營銷人員都很難識別觸發器,激勵客戶營銷信息傳遞給朋友或同事。 大多數營銷正計劃推出一個病毒營銷活動中,為了使巨大的利潤基礎上一點點預算。為了成功地做到這一點,就必須科學地確定的元素,鼓勵客戶到客戶的宣傳和劃分客戶,誰是病毒式營銷的接受和理解的結構激勵計劃(霍根,檸檬和李白,2001年)。 所有的病毒式營銷的目的是將客戶銷售和營銷渠道。使用客戶作為一個新的渠道的目的是產生一個基本的權衡之間不斷增長的市場覆蓋面和維持營銷信息的控制權。營銷誰希望成為一個贏家,希望持有在手終于成功,必須鼓勵客戶相互溝通的意圖倡導的產品和服務(SUBRAMANI拉賈戈帕蘭,2003年)。 Hempel和雷曼(2005)有關的Myspace已經做了研究,他們發現的Myspace做好C2C宣傳。它含有一些有趣的事情給他們的用戶發送電子郵件,建立許多博客和聊天室,人們可以自由溝通。許多有趣的視頻剪輯捕捉更多用戶的眼球,并推動他們推薦到他們的社會網絡。然而,基地TAFE學院(2007年)的研究上,即使漢堡王(Burger King)建成一個wedsite在那里游客可以輸入命令到一個文本框,然后看一個人在雞服裝服從這些命令,和這個有趣的事情吸引了2.24億訪問17個月,但這個愚蠢的病毒活動很難轉化為實際銷售。它似乎鼓勵C2C宣傳,可以使一個公司像MySpace成功,但沒有漢堡王(Burger King),因為它的病毒活動很難轉化為實際銷售。 2.9.2病毒式營銷舉措 病毒式營銷舉措是不同的,取決于企業選擇使用它的目的。然而,他們使用的程度參與戰略規劃的紀律和觸發器來激發消費者充當銷售和代鉛通道:(一)紀律的分析和規劃,確保病毒營銷是一個反復的,而不是科學雜亂無章的創意藝術(二)依靠開發的觸發器,通過市場調研和先進的分析,而不是依賴現金獎勵,確保客戶的倡導者,而不是作為“委托垃圾郵件發送者的功能。” (圖勞的Hennig,格溫納,沃爾什和Gremler,2004)。 2.9.3網絡營銷引擎 此外,網絡營銷環境必須硬線病毒的能力,它的發動機。網站必須配備的工具,允許用戶誰剛剛讀了一篇文章,或購買一個產品發布的經驗或正向相關信息的朋友和同事到他們的網絡(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年),他們的意見。 還有許多其他工具,可以建立到在線營銷引擎,如禮品登記,禮券,社區宣傳欄,社區聊天室,和Amazon.com式聯盟營銷方案(Sudaraman,米特拉和韋伯斯特,1999年的病毒式營銷能力)。也可以配備在線自助服務渠道資源,比如產品比較工具,以支持客戶的銷售渠道承諾(登堡,李白和穆勒,2001年)。 2.9.4六原則和六成功規則 根據前面的分析,為了解決問題,將面臨使用病毒式營銷和病毒活動成功時,有六條原則和六個成功的病毒式營銷的規則需要把重點放在:六原則(來源:威爾遜,2000年) 1。贈送有價值的產品或服務 “免費”是最強大的營銷字典字。大多數病毒式營銷方案是放棄有價值的產品或服務,以吸引客戶的關注。他們選擇使用免費電子郵件或免費軟件下載等免費節目,抓住客戶的眼球。這可以產生客戶的利益風潮。抓住眼球可以在未來帶來豐厚的利潤。所以他們選擇放棄的東西現在賣的東西,在其他時間(劉和NG,2001)。 2。提供毫不費力轉讓給他人的 在流感季節公共衛生護士提供了一個建議:遠離咳嗽,經常洗手的人,不要觸摸眼睛,鼻子或嘴巴。病毒傳播時,他們很容易傳輸(Weinberger和Lepkowska白,2000年)。為了成功進行營銷信息的媒介必須易于傳遞和效仿。病毒性營銷在​​互聯網上著名的,因為即時通訊已經變得如此容易和便宜。它可以被容易地發送和無降解。 3。輕松擴展從小型到大型 必須迅速擴展從小型到大型的傳輸方法,可以不脛而走。如果病毒繁殖擴散之前只是殺死宿主,沒有完成(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)。只要使用病毒式營銷策略的公司,已經提前計劃以及它們如何使消息從一個客戶傳遞到另一個更快的時間。他們必須建立在可擴展性,以他們的病毒模型。 4。利用共同動機和行為 利用人類共同的動機是想成為一個聰明的病毒式營銷計劃。欲望和貪婪驅使人們傳遞和獲取消息。這導致溝通產生數以百萬計的網站和電子郵件消息。要成為一個贏家,該公司應該設計一個營銷策略,其傳輸的基礎上共同動機和行為。 5。利用現有的通信網絡 大多數人是社會的,除了書呆子,居住在地下室的計算機科學研究生。社會科學家表明,每個人都有一個網絡在他們的親密朋友,家人,及聯營公司(霍根網絡,檸檬和李白,2001年)的8至12人。更廣泛的網絡可能包含數百人,數千人,取決于他的社會地位。網絡營銷已經知道這些人際網絡的力量,無論是強大的,密切的網絡和較弱的網絡關系。將消息到現有的人與人之間的通信,然后你迅速繁殖其分散(莫澤萊夫斯基,2000年)。 6。利用別人的資源 最有創意的病毒性營銷計劃利用別人的資源得到了這個詞(劉NG,2001)。如新聞發布會上可以拿起成千上萬的讀者看到文章的基礎上形成。您可以通過很好地利用他人的新聞紙或結婚的網頁轉發你的營銷信息。其他的資源被耗盡,而不是你的。六成功的病毒式營銷的規則。 (來源Rayport,1996/1997) 規則1:隱形的本質是市場準入 規則2:什么是前是免費的,是后付款 規則3:讓目標群體的行為進行消息 規則4:你看像一臺主機,不是病毒 規則5:利用強度弱關系 規則6:投資達到了臨界點 2.10結論 艾耶和帕德馬納班認為,成功的病毒式營銷是聯系在一起的三件事:該公司的行業性質,網上的觀眾任期,議題。一些行業娛樂,音樂,互聯網和軟件顯然有較高的傾向沿通信息,不提目標受眾,往往是精明的網絡。 沒有動力,病毒營銷將是一個沒有輪子的超級跑車。病毒性營銷必須被視為一個非結構化的現象。試著控制它,你就會失敗。 “它是一個有機的野獸,”他說。 “你越構建它,并嘗試控制它的工作,它更打破了。”(奈勒克萊澤,2000年),除非客戶之嫌,除非它他們震驚,他們不打算把它傳遞。如果你能娛人,他們會為你做你的營銷。網絡營銷策略,銷售和營銷管理人員必須考慮病毒式營銷作為企業整體戰略的一個組成部分。 病毒式營銷,有效地達到了一套廣泛的潛在用戶的潛力正在吸引大量關注的同時,也遭到質疑這種做法的價值。公司需要很好地理解這一戰略的背景和特點的產品和服務,它是最有效和最匹配機智的病毒式營銷策略。這是非常重要的,因為不恰當地使用病毒式營銷產品或服務通過創建不利的態度可能會適得其反,甚至在某些情況下,使公司損失。 病毒性營銷是受益于個人在社交網絡中的樂于助人的營銷和收件人雙方的強有力策略。然而,成功的病毒式營銷策略取決于強烈需要被看作是知識淵博的傭工在社交網絡的影響力,而不是作為營銷代理(霍根,檸檬和李白,2004年)的認可。企業應該做的很好地反映在此非常仔細地規劃自己的病毒營銷力度。 盡管病毒式營銷可以花費很少的錢得到豐厚的獎勵,但它也將公司在某些情況下,會導致大問題。因此,它是很難確認病毒式營銷是好還是壞的公司使用。有很多例子兩側。完成它的權利是非常重要的,病毒營銷是一個關鍵因素,許多運動(戈登,李白和穆勒,2001年)。 您選擇何種形式,記得要問轉介的人,而不是只是希望他們會做對自己。所以,如果你正在嘗試病毒營銷活動,測量開始之前的努力:設定目標,邁出堅實的基線報告。并確保活動集成與其他營銷努力。就像一只老虎,它可以是一個很好的演員,招待人馴服,但它也將在某些情況下,殺了人,動物的性質。關鍵的一點是管理以及病毒式營銷策略匹配您的公司和產品的情況;趕上你的現有和潛在客戶的眼球,激發他們的熱情,購買和宣傳您的產品。 這部分研究的基礎上,這顯然是病毒式營銷驅動成功的許多公司,像MySpace,寶馬。但它也有很多不確定的東西,需要考試,如漢堡王(Burger King)的病毒活動可以轉化為實際銷售?如何避免錯誤像索尼的假的病毒活動?的Myspace是否真的使用病毒活動的成功呢?只有第二個數據的基礎上,是沒有足夠的點的立場,所以筆者決定選擇一些方法來收集原始數據,以考試的病毒式營銷的效果得到更有力的證據。這些方法將列出在接下來的部分,第3章的方法。